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NATO Intercepts More Russian Aircraft


Darko Dozet/iStockphoto/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- A number of Russian aircraft were intercepted by NATO on Friday, the second time this week that Russian aircraft prompted the scrambling of NATO fighter jets.

A U.S. defense official told ABC News that NATO tracked "multiple sets" of Russian aircraft, including fighter jets, bombers and refueling tankers. At least two TU-95 bombers were among the Russian planes tracked, after being spotted west of the United Kingdom. The planes had traveled as far south as Portugal before turning back.

The official said that the Russian planes did not violate airspace, but were tracked because they filed no flight plans.

Such incidents "pose the potential risk of escalation," Pentagon spokesman Rear Adm. John Kirby said Friday, adding that the U.S. and NATO are watching the Russian flights "very, very closely."

NATO says that there have been approximately 100 intercepts involving Russian aircraft in 2014 -- about three times the amount in all of 2013.

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Why Upheaval in Burkina Faso Matters to US National Security


ISSOUF SANOGO/AFP/Getty Images(OUAGADOUGOU, Burkina Faso) -- In a surprise announcement, the leader of the African nation of Burkina Faso said Friday he will end his nearly three decade rule -– marking a victory for thousands of angry protesters, but prompting some uneasiness inside the U.S. national security community, which sees the tiny West African nation as a "key ally" in anti-terror operations in the region.

“The location of Burkina Faso is strategic, if you look at the other sides of it,” a U.S. official told ABC News. “It’s an important, strategic place for CT [counter-terrorism] efforts and it’s one of those places that needs to be calm.”

One of the world’s poorest countries, Burkina Faso sits in West Africa between the two operational zones of two major terrorist organizations – al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) in Mali to the north, and Boko Haram in Nigeria to the east.

As such, the government of Burkina Faso -- like its neighbor Niger -- previously agreed to allow American spy planes and drones to operate from its airfields, according to a 2012 report by The Washington Post. The Post called Burkina Faso’s capital Ouagadougou a “key hub of the U.S. spying network” in the region, from which the U.S. conducted a surveillance mission code named Creek Sand out of a small air base built on to the international airport there.

In its 2013 Country Reports on Terrorism, the State Department said Burkina Faso was a “strong U.S. security and defense partner in the region” and said that that year, the government “aggressively undertook measures to combat the regional danger posed by terrorist organizations.”

“The Government of Burkina Faso has recognized the importance of regional stability as an element in the fight against terrorism,” the State Department said.

With Friday’s announcement from Burkina Faso’s longtime leader Blaise Compaore, the U.S. may have lost a somewhat reliable, personal partner in power.

“He [Compaore] is a guy that we’ve sort of been able to work with to help with some of the issues in the region, in terms of being able to use Burkina strategically to counter the unsavories in the neighborhood,” the U.S. official said. “This change is a change that [the U.S. government] is going to have to contend with.”

In 2013, Gilles Yabi, the International Crisis Group's West Africa Project Director, said that Compaore and "his men [had] succeeded in positioning themselves as indispensable mediators in the resolution of regional crisis."

Yabi said that "turmoil in Burkina Faso" could mean the loss of a "key ally and strategic base” for the U.S. and France, according to the International Crisis Group's website. France has also undertaken expansive counter-terror operations in north Africa, including a major operation in Mali in 2013.

However, the U.S. official didn't see the political change in Burkina Faso as necessarily having much of an impact on American counter-terrorism operations there. After all, in return for allowing U.S. to conduct its missions from Burkina Faso, the U.S. supports the country’s own anti-terror and border security operations.

For instance, in 2013 “U.S. assistance facilitated the establishment of a 1,000-person border security task force and the training and equipping of a military counter-terrorism unit,” according to the State Department report.

It’s the kind of help -- along with millions of dollars yearly in foreign aid -- that the U.S. is counting on Burkina Faso needing, whoever is in charge.

“The military leaders, the transitional leaders don’t want what is going on in the neighborhood to spill over to Burkina Faso,” the U.S. official said. “It doesn’t appear at this moment that the new transitional government would seek to turn a shoulder to the U.S. or any Western partner.”

Lt. Col. Vanessa Hillman, a spokesperson for the U.S. military’s Africa Command which runs operations on the continent, declined to discuss American counter-terrorism operations in Burkina Faso, but she said the military is “keeping a close eye” on developments there.

While she said she doesn’t “want to guess at what’s going to happen,” Hillman said the military is “hopeful” that the change of power won’t affect Burkina Faso's posture towards American forces in the region.

"[Burkina Faso is] a key ally," Hillman said. "In a region that’s so unstable at times, it’s good to have an ally."

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Italy to Cease Missions to Save Migrants Crossing Mediterranean


iStock Editorial/Thinkstock(ROME) -- Italy announced on Friday it will stop conducting search and rescue missions to save migrants crossing the Mediterranean Sea.

Since January, naval patrols between Italy and North Africa have saved more than 150,000 people in rickety boats escaping war and violence. But Italy says it can no longer afford the $11 million a month operation and will stop it at the end of the year.

The European Union is set to start its own patrols on Saturday, but human rights groups say it's not big enough to replace the Italian rescue mission and that thousands more lives could be lost.

The E.U. has also had trouble getting member countries to contribute to the new mission. Britain says it won't be part of it because the patrols will only encourage more migrants to risk the dangerous crossing. 

So far this year, more than 3,300 people have drowned trying to make it to Italy.

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Canada Won't Issue Visas to Individuals from Ebola-Impacted Countries


PhenomArtlover/iStockphoto/Thinkstock(TORONTO) -- Canada has instituted a visa ban on individuals from West Africa seeking temporary or permanent residence, in an effort to prevent the spread of Ebola.

Noting the ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the potential for "introduction or spread of the disease," the Canadian government opted to enact the visa ban as of Friday. Citizenship and Immigration Canada will neither process new visa applications nor continue to process pending applications for temporary residence for workers, students or visitors who have been in an Ebola affected country within three months of their application date.

The decision applies to those nations designated by the World Health Organization as having widespread and persistent/intense transmission of Ebola.

The rules apply to those seeking permanent residence as well.

The decision, reported by the Canada Gazette, the official newspaper of the government of Canada, aim to "assist in the prevention of the transmission and spread of the Ebola Virus Disease in Canada."

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President of Burkina Faso Steps Aside Following Protests


Photo by Stan Honda-Pool/Getty Images(OUAGADOUGOU, Burkina Faso) -- Following violent protests over his attempt to extend his presidential term, Blaise Compaore, leader of Burkina Faso, stepped aside on Friday, dissolving his government and called for democratic elections and a return to tranquility.

Compaore had been pushing a bill that would have extended his term as president by five years. He has served in that position for 27 years.

On Thursday, protests turned violent, with the country's parliament set on fire.

Compaore said he would remain in his role during the transitional period.

The U.S. "calls for a transfer of power in accordance with the constitution," National Security Council spokesperson Bernadette Meehan said Friday. "We regret the loss of life stemming from the recent violence in Burkina Faso." She also noted that the U.S. is "concerned about reports that Military Chief Gen. Honore Traore has announce he is acting as head of state...we strongly condemn any attempt to seize power through extra-constitutional means."

The Washington Post notes that a hub of the U.S. spy network is based in Ouagadougou.

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Clashes in Jerusalem, West Bank Amid Rising Tension


iStock/Thinkstock(JERUSALEM) -- Scattered clashes erupted around Jerusalem and the West Bank following Friday’s midday Muslim prayers as tension and violence grow with the shooting death by Israeli police of a Palestinian man and Thursday’s closure of Jerusalem’s al-Aqsa compound, the third holiest site in Islam.

At least eight Palestinians were reported wounded in clashes with Israeli forces on Friday at the Qalandiya checkpoint between Jerusalem and the West Bank city of Ramallah. There had been calls by Palestinian leaders for a “Day of Rage” after Muataz Hijazi, 32, was gunned down Thursday morning by Israeli border police, suspected of trying to assassinate a prominent right-wing Israeli activist.

The same day, Israeli authorities closed down the compound of the al-Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock, known as the Noble Sanctuary to Muslims and the Temple Mount to Jews. It was the first time since 1967 that the compound in Jerusalem’s Old City had been completely closed off.

With Palestinian anger on the rise, it was announced that the compound would be re-opened on Friday, but for only for male Muslim worshippers over the age of 50 , as well as women of any age.

On Friday morning, Israeli police in riot gear encircled the Old City and lined its alleyways before the prayers, as people filed through barricades toward the mosque.

But as the prayers ended, the skies opened up, dampening the violence the city had been bracing for. Many of the police reinforcements that had been called in were seen leaving as the rains got heavier and it became clear there wouldn’t be confrontations there.

As the drizzle continued, police and protesters clashed elsewhere, including the West Bank cities of Bethlehem and Hebron, as well as Jerusalem’s Wadi Joz and Abo Tur neighborhoods, near the home of Muataz Hijazi.

Hijazi is suspected by Israeli police of shooting four bullets into the torso of American-born Rabbi Yehuda Glick, a well-known activist who advocated the building of what’s known as the Third Temple on the site of the al-Aqsa mosque, as well as campaigning for the rights of Jews to pray in the compound, which is forbidden.

Glick was coming out of a conference called “Israel Returns to the Temple Mount” at Jerusalem’s Begin Center when a man on a motorcycle shot him. Hijazi’s cousin told the BBC that he was executed by police on the roof of his home.

All this comes after months of almost daily clashes between Palestinians and Israeli police in Jerusalem, sparked in July after a Palestinian teen was burned to death by Jewish extremists, believed to have been motivated by the killing of three Israeli teens by Palestinians from Hebron.

The growing violence has raised fears of a third Palestinian intifada, or uprising. After the closure of the al-Aqsa compound, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas said it was tantamount to “a declaration of war.”

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UK Fireworks Factory Blaze Caught on Camera


Jacob Willcox/YouTube(STAFFORD, England) — A large blaze at a fireworks factory in the United Kingdom sent two people to the hospital, with one person missing.

Video shows fireworks exploding and smoke pouring from the building in Stafford Thursday night.

About 50 firefighters battled the blaze at its peak. Firefighters remained at the building overnight after extinguishing the blaze.

One person remains missing.

The building will be searched as investigators try to figure out what caused the fire, Staffordshire police said.


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US Military Conducts Eight Airstrikes Against ISIS in Syria, Iraq


Stocktrek Images/Thinkstock(TAMPA, Fla.) -- The U.S. military continued its attack against Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) targets in Iraq and Syria, launching eight more airstrikes on Thursday and Friday.

According to U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM), four of the strikes were in Syria, near Kobani. They damaged four fighting positions and one building.  

The remaining four airstrikes in Iraq hit a small unit near Fallujah; struck a small unit near Bayji; destroyed a checkpoint and one vehicle near Al Qaim; and destroyed three ISIS-occupied buildings and hit a large unit near Tikrit.

CENTCOM said all the aircraft used in the attacks managed to exit the areas safely.

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Monster Costumes Could Lead to Arrest in Beijing on Halloween


iStock/Thinkstock(BEIJING) -- Dressing up as a monster or a zombie for Halloween might get you arrested Friday night in Beijing because authorities fear the costumes could cause "panic."

Expats in Beijing had organized Halloween parties on the subway in the past two years. Each year, the weekend before Halloween, “ghouls” and other Halloweeners would hop on subway Line 2 carrying bottles of beer and mixed drinks. When subway security personnel tried to stop the crowds, they were often swallowed up in the throngs of revelers -- which included many people dressed up as subway security guards.

Halloween is not celebrated in China and the Beijing government discourages superstitions. The warning against spooking subway riders was carried in the Beijing Times, which said authorities feared the gruesome costumes could cause "panic."

The Beijing Times quotes police as warning trick-or-treaters that if they “insist on getting on the subway, or the chaos is serious and causes a stampede or other public safety incident, the police will deal with it severely in accordance with the law.”

The crackdown comes ahead of Beijing hosting the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation conference next month. Leaders from all over the world will be gathered in the capital for what is being hailed as the biggest international event there since the 2008 Olympics.

In order to make sure the APEC summit runs smoothly, the Beijing government has been taking some tough measures.

Factories in and outside of Beijing have been shut down for air-quality control.

Starting from Saturday and running until Nov. 12, the city will begin widespread traffic controls, and cars can only hit the streets every other day, depending on their license plate numbers.

Authorities will also increase general security measures, including banning monsters and zombies that usually jam the subway line each Halloween.

Many people in China have commented on the Internet and expressed little sympathy for the Halloween partiers.

One Internet user from Nanjing wrote: “Please consider children and old people in public places.”

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An ISIS Group Ashamed of Its Name


iStock/Thinkstock(HALIFAX, Nova Scotia) — For years, the Immigrant Settlement & Integration Services agency in Halifax, Nova Scotia, has assisted new arrivals in settling in the Canadian province. As CBCNews reports, the agency will continue to do its work but under a new name since its acronym ISIS is apparently scaring off people.

ISIS, as the world has come to know, also stands for the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, the militant Sunni extremist group that has become the new scourge of the Mideast.

Gerry Mills, the head of ISIS Nova Scotia, said that while his employees are now reluctant to tell others the name of their organization, what really precipitated the decision to drop ISIS was the reaction it got from Syrian and Iraqi immigrants.

Meanwhile, Halifax International Airport has also taken down a sign that reads, ""Starting your new life in Canada? Contact ISIS."

Mills says a new, non-controversial name should be picked out within a week or two "that will outlive all of us, we hope.”

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ISIS Blamed for Mass Graves, Prison Inmate Slaughter


iStock/Thinkstock(WASHINGTON) — Mass graves found in western Iraq contain the bodies of possibly hundreds of Sunni tribesman who partnered with the government in its ongoing battle against the Islamic State.

Although there was no claim of responsibility for the deaths of Al Bu Nimr tribe members, it's believed they were killed by ISIS fighters who have taken over large portions of Anbar province.

In Washington, Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel told reporters during a press briefing that these wholesale murders represented the brutal "reality of what we're dealing with" in the war against ISIS.

Meanwhile, the group Human Rights Watch said Thursday that the Sunni Muslim extremists are the chief suspects in the slaughter of as many as 600 prison inmates last June from a jail outside the city of Mosul.

According to the report, ISIS militants had the inmates kneel along the edge of a ravine before they were all gunned down.

Human Rights Watch said they learned of the massacre from a few inmates who managed to survived being shot.

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Few Arrests of Americans Who Fought in Syria or Iraq; Feds Focus on "Small Group" Back Inside U.S.


zabelin/iStockphoto/Thinkstock(WASHINGTON) -- Of the dozens of Americans who traveled to war-torn Syria or Iraq and then returned home, only a “small group” of them fought with a terrorist group and might be inclined to launch an attack back in the U.S., federal counterterrorism officials are claiming.

Putting potentially dangerous returnees like that behind bars, however, has been a slow and painstaking process.

In the past 16 months, not a single returnee has been arrested -- even secretly -- on charges of allegedly supporting terrorists or committing any other direct form of terrorism overseas, though “a couple” have been quietly implicated in lesser offenses such as lying on travel forms, a federal source told ABC News.

By contrast, in that time, the FBI and Justice Department have arrested at least nine people in the United States who allegedly tried to join terrorists in Syria or Iraq, where more than 12,000 foreign fighters have converged.

And just last month, an upstate New York man was nabbed for allegedly trying to recruit two more Americans to join the Islamic State, also known as ISIS or ISIL, the Iraq-based group that has been wreaking havoc in the region and inspiring attacks around the world.

“People aren’t saying, ‘Hey, I just got back from fighting with ISIL, here’s my ticket [proving it],’” a federal source quipped about the challenges in bringing cases against returnees.

In fact, U.S. law sets a “high bar” to prosecute an American for joining a group like ISIS, especially given the “complicated dynamic” and “limited visibility” on the ground in Syria and Iraq, and the reluctance to present classified sources and methods in open court, according to current and former federal officials.

“The problem is some of the guys we … know traveled, but we didn’t know about it until they came back,” one federal source said. “So how do we find out what they did?”

The FBI has spent much of the past two years trying to figure that out.

Over that time, at least 40 Americans have returned from Syria or Iraq, and at one recent point about half of them were under “full investigation,” indicating the FBI had come across some bit of information -- even “single-source” information -- suggesting those suspects posed a possible threat, ABC News was told.

FBI agents across the country have conducted electronic surveillance, scrutinized travel records and passenger databases, reviewed messages and posts on social media, interviewed family and friends, and in some cases approached the suspects directly.

“We worked very hard to sort out who are the ones” to worry about, FBI Director James Comey claimed last month.

Through that work, the FBI has cataloged a recent "shift" in returnees and other so-called "travelers," with an increasingly younger crop of American jihadists replacing those focused on providing humanitarian assistance or “nationalistic support," according to federal sources.

Many of the investigations into the "early travelers" -- who the FBI determined never fought with or supported a terrorist group -- have since been “closed out,” one federal source said.

So the FBI is now focusing its efforts on that small group of returnees it “assesses” pose an “actual” and, “significant threat to the homeland,” as the federal source put it.

“There are several cases in the pipeline” at “various stages,” the federal source said.

The targets of those investigations are likely under daily FBI surveillance, according to what Comey and Attorney General Eric Holder recently told ABC News.

Arresting suspects for lower-level offenses would take them off the streets at least for a short time. But to put returnees behind bars for longer, the Justice Department “relies” on a law that prohibits someone from providing “material support” to terrorist organizations or even trying to do so, Holder recently said.

And under that law, federal investigators need to prove suspects linked up with a group officially designated a terrorist organization by the U.S. government, and that they did it “knowingly” -- meaning they didn’t end up there through chance or misfortune.

“Traveling to Syria and engaging in combat there is not enough,” one federal source said.

Syria and Iraq are home to several U.S.-designated terrorist organizations, such as ISIS and the Al Nusrah Front. However, there are also countless rag-tag rebel groups there that have not been outlawed by the U.S. State Department.

In fact, some of those rebel groups attracting Americans have received direct help from the U.S. government to topple Syrian president Bashar al-Assad’s brutal regime, making it complicated to prosecute someone for engaging in activity akin to the U.S. government’s own actions, according to sources.

“Once [Americans] get into that melting pot, sorting out who belongs to which group… who they’re exposed to … [and] what skills they gathered … is where the complicated dynamic comes into this,” one federal source said.

That complicated dynamic can undermine a federal prosecution, as illustrated last year when FBI agents in Virginia arrested a former U.S. Army soldier for fighting with militants in Syria.

Eric Harroun, 30, had appeared in online videos with many of those militants, and he repeatedly told FBI agents he was fighting with the Al Nusrah Front as part of its “RPG Team.” He even posted photos and messages about it on his Facebook page.

Federal prosecutors indicted him for providing material support to a terrorist organization, calling their case “extremely strong.” He faced life in prison.

But within months the case dramatically changed course, with further investigation revealing Harroun had not been fighting with the Al Nusrah Front after all. He wanted to fight with them and thought he had found them, but he actually fought, “with a different violent extremist group” not designated a terrorist organization by the U.S. government, one federal law enforcement official said.

In a deal with prosecutors, Harroun pleaded guilty to an obscure weapons-related violation. He was released from prison six months after his arrest, sentenced to time already served.

“Until we have more of an ability to collect and gather evidence and support these prosecutions, they’re going to present challenges,” said John Cohen, a former Los Angeles-area police officer and Naval Intelligence investigator who until recently was a top counterterrorism coordinator at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. “We’re going to have to look at different ways to mitigate the threat or to neutralize the threat.”

Cohen predicted the FBI will now be looking to make cases against returnees, “based on what they do in this country” rather than what they did previously overseas.

Federal prosecutors in Los Angeles built such a case last year after a 25-year-old California man returned from Syria, where he attained what he described as his “first confirmed kill” and spent five months fighting with the Al Nusrah Front.

To put Sinh Vinh Ngo Nguyen behind bars back on U.S. soil, the FBI launched a four-month undercover operation, ultimately ensnaring him in a fake plan to leave the United States again to train al Qaeda fighters in Pakistan. In June, he was sentenced to 13 years in prison.

In Europe, the threat from radical returnees “became real” months ago, when a former ISIS fighter opened fire in a Jewish museum in Brussels and killed four people, the then-director of the National Counterterrorism Center, Matt Olsen, said at a forum in Washington last month before he left office.

One federal source said the FBI’s “priority” is stopping a radical returnee from taking an action like that, and the "prevention piece” is more important to the FBI than proving any criminal case.

The FBI is undertaking that effort even as it tries to identify others who may have left for Syria or Iraq and then slipped back into the United States.

“There is no doubt that there are people that have traveled and returned that [we] don’t know about,” the federal source said, adding such anonymity makes stopping any potential threat from them even harder.

Of course, there are likely also so-called "lone wolves” across the United States that have never stepped foot in Syria or Iraq and are being radicalized online, “in basements [and] in pajamas” by groups like ISIS, as Comey and Homeland Security Secretary Jeh Johnson recently described them.

“In many respects, that’s the terrorist threat that I worry most about because it’s the hardest to detect, and it could happen on very little notice,” Johnson said earlier this month.

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Redacted: Military Classifies Info on $61B Afghan Training


Daniel Berehulak/Getty Images(KABUL, Afghanistan) -- If you’re curious what America is getting for its multi-billion dollar effort to train and equip local security forces in Afghanistan, sorry, that’s now classified.

In its most recent quarterly report to Congress, the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) sharply criticized a new move by the U.S.-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to classify even the executive summary of its regular reports on the capabilities of the Afghan forces in which the U.S. has invested more than $61 billion.

The regular ISAF reports, most recently called the Regional ANSF Status Report (RASR), have been produced by ISAF in some form since 2008. A majority of the contents always have been classified, since they deal with ground-level capabilities of Afghan forces -- potentially useful intelligence for insurgents -- but the executive summary was not. SIGAR called the sudden, “inexplicable” classification “deeply troubl[ing]” and a direct hit to government accountability.

“ISAF’s classification of the report summary deprives the American people of an essential tool to measure the success or failure of the single most costly feature of the Afghanistan reconstruction effort,” SIGAR said in its latest quarterly report to Congress. “SIGAR and Congress can of course request classified briefings on this information, but its inexplicable classification now and its disappearance from public view does a disservice to the interest of informed national discussion.”

“It is not clear what security purpose is served by denying the American public even high-level information,” the SIGAR report says.

Lt. Col. Chris Belcher, a public affairs officer at ISAF in Afghanistan, told ABC News in an email that the move was made to “address potential concerns about operational security” after a reevaluation in August.

“After careful review, it was determined that the entirety of the report was classified to include the executive summary which contained Afghan-provided readiness information,” Belcher said. “While we appreciate and understand SIGAR’s responsibility to provide information to Congress and the American public, we have a responsibility to protect data that could jeopardize the operational security of our Afghan partners to include unnecessarily highlighting possible vulnerabilities and capability gaps; information which could provide adversaries critical intelligence that could be exploited, endangering the lives of our Afghan partners and coalition forces serving alongside them.”

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UN Relief Efforts in Syria Hampered by Lack of Access


MatthewBrosseau/iStockphoto/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Kyung-wha Kang, Assistant Secretary General for Humanitarian Affairs for the United Nations, briefed the U.N. Security Council on the situation in Syria on Thursday, highlighting fighting, insecurity and a lack of access as reasons the humanitarian situation is deteriorating.

"Food, medicines, and other assistance is just a short distance away from those who desperately require it," Kang said. "And if the parties grant access, we can deliver. We can save lives. But our requests have so far gone unanswered."

Still, the U.N. has delivered food aid to over 3.9 million people and medicines and other supplies to 1.6 million.

In some areas where the U.N. did have access to refugee camps, that access was limited -- including a camp in Yarkouk, where only a fraction of those in need were given aid.

The U.N. says that the Syrian conflict has led to over 150,000 deaths since March 2011. Those figures plus at least 680,000 injured and more than 6.5 million displaced, has the U.N. calling for access to provide aid.

"The parties must comply with their international legal obligations to protect people," Kang said. "They must allow us the access required to help those in need."

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Russia, Ukraine Agree to Natural Gas Deal


berean/iStockphoto/Thinkstock(MOSCOW) -- Following a long period of negotiations, a $4.6 billion dollar agreement was made between Russia and Ukraine, by which Russia will supply sufficient natural gas to Ukraine to ensure heating during the winter.

Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission said he was "delighted" to announce the "major success." The deal represented an, "agreement on their outstanding energy debt issues, and on an interim solution that enables supplies to continue this winter."

Ukraine agreed to make two payments -- $1.45 billion immediately and $1.65 more by the end of 2014 -- to pay debts to Russia. The other half of the agreement involves Russia delivering gas at a pre-determined price, provided Ukraine makes monthly payments. Ukraine will also not be subjected to "take-or-pay" obligations as are in the current contract, which would require Ukraine to pay a penalty for any oil not taken up to an agreed upon ceiling.

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