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1,000-Year-Old Eye Infection Salve May Kill MRSA Super Bug, Study Shows

University of Nottingham(NEW YORK) -- A relatively new super bug may have met its match in a 1,000-year-old eye treatment, according to researchers from the University of Nottingham.

The recipe to cure eye infections comes from Bald’s Leechbook, an old English leather-bound tome that was buried deep within the British Library in London. When scientists painstakingly followed a step-by-step recipe to recreate the old-world salve, they found it killed over 90 percent of a Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus -- also known as the MRSA bacteria -- that was grown in a petri dish of mouse cells.

The tenth-century concoction contained two species of allium (garlic, plus either onion or leek), wine from a vineyard that has existed since the ninth century and oxgall, the bile from a cow’s stomach. A very specific set of instructions included brewing the solution in a brass vessel, straining it through a cloth and then letting the mixture sit for nine days before use.

The researchers concluded it wasn’t one particular ingredient that did the trick but rather the entire recipe.

“We thought that Bald’s eye salve might show a small amount of antibiotic activity, because each of the ingredients has been shown by other researchers to have some effect on bacteria in the lab," Freya Harrison, one of the lead Nottingham researchers, said in a statement. “But we were absolutely blown away by just how effective the combination of ingredients was.”

Each year, 90,000 Americans suffer from invasive MRSA infection, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It has become one of the most antibiotic-resistant bugs known, costing billions of dollars in health care spending and killing about 20,000 yearly. The CDC says MRSA is a particular threat in hospital settings, though in recent years infections from the deadly virus have declined by over 50 percent.

While the results of the experiment are intriguing, the team is looking for more funding to see if the treatment has any practical application in the real world. The preliminary results done using the simple mouse cells were presented at the annual conference of the Society for General Microbiology in Birmingham earlier this week.

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Doctors Ask Why Some Enterovirus 68 Patients Developed Polio-Like Paralysis

ABC News(NEW YORK) -- When 4-year-old Allen Howe went from being a little goofball to being unable to move 80 percent of his body, his mother was in tears. Days earlier, he had a fever and a cough.

"I felt helpless," Teresa Howe told ABC News' Nightline in December. "He was lying in bed and he literally was screaming, 'Help me, Mom,' and I'm just bawling."

Allen was among the small fraction of children with the respiratory illness enterovirus 68 to develop sudden unexplained paralysis after the initial severe flu-like symptoms. Allen and the others are reportedly recovering, but doctors at the University of San Francisco set out to figure out why the paralysis set in to begin with -- and why only some children were hit.

Federal and state health officials have confirmed 1,153 enterovirus 68 cases in 49 states and Washington, D.C., from August through January. Fourteen patients died, and several clusters developed polio-like paralysis.

Doctors now know that the paralysis and weakness is brought on by acute flaccid myelitis, or inflammation of the nerve cells, but it's tough to say how it's connected to the virus, experts say.

Dr. Charles Chiu and his team at UCSF studied 25 patients who developed paralysis in California and Colorado for their study published this week in the medical journal The Lancet. They found that of two siblings with identical strains of enterovirus 68, only one developed paralysis, leading Chiu to suspect that the virus alone may not be at fault for the paralysis. It could be an abnormal immune system response.

"This suggests that it's not only the virus, but also patients' individual biology that determines what disease they may present with," Chiu said in a statement.

The researchers also noticed that they didn't find traces of the virus in the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the inflamed nerve cells, leading them to believe the virus wasn't directly attacking them. Chiu said it's crucial to continue searching for answers.

"Given that none of the children have fully recovered, we urgently need to continue investigating this new strain of EV-D68 [enterovirus 69] and its potential to cause acute flaccid myelitis," he said.

The peak enterovirus season has been over for some time, but Dr. Kathryn Miller, assistant professor of pediatrics at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tennessee, said it could come back next year.

As a mother of four, she said she thinks it's important to remember that cases will go away like normal colds. Parents should remind their children to wash their hands thoroughly, and if a child's cold seems more severe than usual, parents should call their family doctor.

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Cincinnati Reds Debut Stadium Nursery for Mom-Baby Baseball Fans

Great American Ball Park(CINCINNATI) -- Baseball-loving moms with babies everywhere can root, root, root for the Reds -- even if they're Cards fans.

The Cincinnati Reds have debuted what's thought to be the first suite in Major League Baseball for nursing moms and their offspring -- the Reds fans of the future.

During the off season, the Cincinnati Reds partnered with Pampers and local homebuilder Fischer Homes to create the suite.

The decision was made after Reds Chief Operating Officer Phil Castellini was informed by the Great American Ball Park operations staff that an increasing number of moms were requesting a quiet and private place to feed their babies while at a Reds game.

The suite features gliders, changing station, a kitchenette with a sink, ice and refrigerator, lockers for storing items and, most importantly, a flat-screen TV so mom doesn't miss a home run. It's located on the Suite Level near the Champions Club elevators.

The suite will be ready to welcome tiny fans and moms on April 6 to coincide with Opening Day.

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'Bubble Boy' Seth Lane to Undergo Bone Marrow Transplant

Leanne Lane(NEW YORK) -- March 27 was a big day for 'Bubble Boy' Seth Lane, the 5-year-old who was born without an immune system.

Trending worldwide, the social media campaign #WearYellowForSeth grabbed the attention of Seth fans from all over the globe.

On Tuesday, Seth embarks on the first step towards having the bone marrow transplant that could potentially save his life.

"He's doing generally okay," mom Leanne Lane told ABC News. "He’s having an operation today to have his gallbladder out so so he can have his chemotherapy. He's in there right now."

"This is new for us. He's never had any operations on his organs before. He gets upset. He just says 'mummy and daddy' over and over again, but we’ll be outside waiting until hes awake," she said.

Despite her little boy having to go through surgery on Tuesday, Lane said that Seth was overjoyed about the amount of people who wore yellow for him on Friday.

"Friday was amazing," she said. "The hospital did a lot there, even the local firemen came to see him and put a ladder up to his window. He [Seth] was shell-shocked."

"It was so busy, we couldn’t even keep up. Obviously there was Ashton Kutcher and 'Paw Patrol.' They did all pups in yellow and sent him a voice message. Seth thought it was brilliant," Lane said.

"On Saturday morning he said 'is everyone going to wear yellow again today?'" she added.

Celebrities like Joe Jonas and Fifth Harmony's AllyBrooke joined Kutcher in wearing yellow. Television crews, retail stores, and even the cast of Sesame Street, tweeted in support of Seth.

"There was a time difference between the UK and America and once America woke up, it went crazy again," Lane said. "It's really hard to put that in words. We just want to say thank you. He's one little boy in England who's five years old and it makes us feel amazing that people care so much. On Friday and Saturday Seth spent the whole day out of his bed and it really picked him up."

"People have been messaging me saying it's inspired them to register to give bone marrow. If they can help one person that’s amazing," she said.

Because Seth is on steroids, Lane said it will slow down his recovery process.

She added that if all runs smoothly, Seth's doctors will perform the transplant in three to four weeks.

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The Best and Worst Easter Candy for You, Ranked by a Dietician

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- It’s Easter candy week, and with holiday favorites -- Peeps, chocolate bunnies and crème eggs -- hitting the shelves, it can be very hard to resist temptation.

ABC News spoke to Georgie Fear, a registered dietitian and author of Lean Habits for Lifelong Weight Loss, to rank your options from (relative) best for you to worst.

“It’s weird to call any candy ‘best’ for you,” Fear told ABC, but she forged ahead anyway so you can indulge as you see fit.

High-Quality Dark Chocolate Bunnies

“Where chocolate bunnies are concerned, a high-quality dark chocolate rabbit such as a Lindt gold foil-wrapped bunny offers some healthy polyphenols and may be satisfying in smaller portions than other types of chocolate,” Fear said.

Single Serving Crème Eggs


“If portion control is tough for you, and you love seasonal items that aren't available all year, pick up a Cadbury Crème egg or Russell Stover single-serve egg in the flavor you like most,” she advised. “One of the great things about Easter candy is that you can buy single servings easily, often near checkout, and not even need to venture down the candy aisle gauntlet.”

“A single Cadbury Crème Egg or Russell Stover Easter Egg could be just what you want for about 150 calories. And compared to possessing a Valentine’s Day box of chocolate-filled candies, you'll be far less likely to eat past your comfort level,” she added.

Reese’s Peanut Butter Egg

“If you like chocolate and peanut butter, you might prefer a Reese's chocolate and peanut butter egg for 170 calories. Compared to the classic two-cup Reese's peanut butter cups package, you'll save some calories and fat,” Fear revealed.

Homemade Easter Candy

“This is a dangerous idea -- if you make two dozen chocolate peanut butter eggs, someone's going to eat them all eventually! Not having to even unwrap the candies makes it exceptionally easy to go overboard with eating some multiple times a day,” she warned.

“If you do want to make your own, wrap them up and keep them out of sight, and try to plan on a moderate amount with a meal instead of grazing on them every time you pass through the kitchen,” Fear advised. “Homemade candy does offer the option of using higher-quality, real-food ingredients (such as dark chocolate, fruit or coconut) than pharmacy-purchased candy, but it's not a nutritious choice, and the portion size increase makes it a worse health hazard than a smaller portion of the kind you'd unwrap.”

Jelly Beans and Marshmallow Treats

“They’re fun Easter classics, but don't be fooled into thinking that just because these are fat free that they are healthy picks,” she said. “Essentially, both these options are straight sugar, which means that they could send you on a blood sugar roller coaster and only craving more of the sweet stuff in a short time.”

Milk or White Chocolate Bunnies

“A milk chocolate or white chocolate rabbit lacks as many of the heart-healthy polyphenols that dark chocolate offers, and can pack a hefty calorie and fat price tag, even if the monetary cost is low. White chocolate actually contains no polyphenols at all, since it has no cocoa content,” Fear revealed. “The worst Easter candy, in my opinion, is low quality ‘chocolate’ bunnies made with partially hydrogenated oil instead of cocoa butter and hardly any actual cocoa at all.”

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Terri Schiavo: 10 Years After Her Death 'End of Life' Debate Rages On

Tim Boyles/Getty Images(NEW YORK) -- Ten years after the death of Terri Schiavo, the debate over when to end the life of someone catastrophically ill rages on.

Terri Schindler Schiavo collapsed at home in the early morning hours of Feb. 25, 1990, according to the Terri Schiavo Life & Hope Foundation started by her parents, Robert and Mary Schindler. She was ultimately diagnosed with hypoxic encephalopathy, a brain injury resulting from oxygen starvation.

Her husband Michael Schiavo asked for her feeding tube to be removed once doctors declared her in a persistent vegetative state, touching off a decade-long legal battle with her parents that went all the way to the Supreme Court.

The court eventually sided with Schiavo’s husband and the young woman’s feeding tube was removed. She died about two weeks after the tube was removed on March 31, 2005.

Many of the issues stirred up by the Schiavo case still resonate today, said Arthur Caplan, director of the division of medical ethics at NYU Langone Medical Center.

“Schiavo was huge landmark in maintaining the rights of spouses to stop any and all medical interventions,” Caplan said. “But it raised all sorts of uncomfortable questions about when it becomes acceptable to remove someone from life support, even when the law makes it clear.”

The line then is the line now, Caplan said. When someone is diagnosed as permanently unconscious, life-saving measures may cease. But all the legal and ethical battles have not made the personal decisions any easier, Caplan said.

“And now we even more technology and experimental drugs to decide about,” he said.

Jahi McMath

Caplan referenced 13-year-old Jahi McMath, who was declared brain dead by doctors after going into cardiac arrest during tonsil surgery at Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland in California. The family sued to keep the child on life support. She was eventually moved to New Jersey where state law allows religious objection to brain death.

Jahi's mother, Nailah Winkfield, spoke to ABC News exclusively last year, saying her daughter continues to respond to verbal commands. The family filed suit against the hospital earlier this month for negligence.

Brittany Maynard

Maynard was a 29-year-old newlywed from California who was diagnosed with terminal brain cancer in early 2014. She moved to Oregon for the legal right to end her own life. Oregon is one of five states that give patients the right to obtain a prescription to die in their sleep.

In her legislative testimony, she said some people suggested that she do palliative sedation where a person is placed in a drug-induced coma and deprived of nutrients and water until death comes on its own. Caplan said this is similar to what Terri Schiavo went through.

Maynard ended her own life last November. Earlier this month, her family released a video of her testimony for a right-to-die bill in California that she recorded shortly before her death.

Marlise Munoz

Munoz was 14 weeks pregnant when she collapsed with a suspected embolism in November 2013. As a result of her pregnancy, John Peter Smith Hospital in Fort Worth, Texas said state law barred it from removing her from life support until Munoz miscarried or a baby was born.

In this case, the family took the opposite tact from Schiavo’s parents, Caplan said, by asking that Munoz be removed from life support so that she could die. After months of legal wrangling, the family won the case. She was removed from life support last January and ceased all cardiac function a few minutes later.

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National Eating Disorder Awareness Group Endorses Aerie Underwear

American Eagle(NEW YORK) — American Eagle's underwear line has been awarded the National Eating Disorders Association's first-ever seal of approval for showing real bodies and unretouched photos on its website and in its ads.

NEDA announced on Monday that the intimate apparel line, called Aerie, has been awarded with its Inspire seal of approval. Aerie in 2014 launched its #AerieReal campaign, setting itself apart from other bra and underwear brands by leaving in models' blemishes, tattoos, cellulite and other imperfections. This year, it partnered with NEDA, becoming a key sponsor in its eating disorder awareness walks across the country.

"Unrealistic images in advertising and the media play a role in the rising epidemic of eating disorders and poor self-esteem," NEDA CEO Lynn Grefe said in a statement. "But Aerie's campaigns highlight a range of body types. Their approach is not only socially responsible, but also resonates with the public and is profitable. We hope others will learn by Aerie's outstanding example."

Model Hana Mayeda was one of the first models to be part of Aerie's new campaign, and she said the thought of not being retouched initially gave her butterflies. She said the experience forced her to deal with her own insecurities, and she came out embracing her flaws.

"I had to travel to the place of 'Oh my god, there's a huge billboard, and that's my butt and it's not retouched,'" she said, adding that she grew to realize the flaws make some of the photos more beautiful. "They were capturing essence of who I was in a moment as opposed to how I fit in a designer gown."

Jennifer Foyle, global brand president for Aerie, said the company is trying to create a movement, and showing unretouched photos is just the beginning.

"We just want girls to feel proud about themselves," she said.

Still, experts say there's a long way to go before we reach true acceptance.

Body image expert Tomi-Ann Roberts, who chairs the department of psychology at Colorado State College, said the first image she saw on Aerie's website was of a woman in a sexualized pose who had been cropped to avoid showing her limbs. This, she said, wasn't exactly realistic.

"She is not emaciated like a runway model, but she is the idealized thin, white, beautiful we see," Roberts said.

The site does have a page to show customers photos of every cup size on a real woman with that cup size, but it takes a few clicks to find.

Sara Ziff, a model who founded the advocacy group Model Alliance, said Photoshop is one of the many tools used to enhance photos to "promote an unrealistic ideal."

"For example, lighting, the angle of the photographer's lens, and make-up also play a big role," Ziff said. "So while it is refreshing and admirable that a company like Aerie has made a policy not to retouch their models' images to promote a more realistic body image, it is also somewhat naive to think that even these unretouched ads are unfiltered and, hence, 'real.'"

Dr. Jennifer Ashton, a senior medical contributor for ABC News and practicing OBGYN, said half of her patients are young girls, and body image is a frequent topic of conversation at appointments. She said whether it's the fashion industry or taking selfies that has prompted a young girl or woman to think about her body, it's important to focus on overall wellness rather than a number of the scale or jeans size.

"It's nice to say that you're not touching up any models, but there's no shortage of models who look spectacular untouched," she said. "Until we start seeing models of every size, every color, every age, you're not really going to see that change in terms of accepting imperfection."

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Making Friends in High School May Be as Important as Making Good Grades

Creatas/Thinkstock(LONDON) — No one ever said making friends in school was easy but if your children manage to do so, they might be setting themselves up for a very secure financial future.

According to a survey of U.S. high school students that followed them to adulthood, teens who made a lot of friends earned salaries that were ten percent higher than adolescents who had fewer close pals.

What's more, high school kids improved their earning power if they became the center of their group of friends and influenced their peers.

Researchers said the major takeaway of the study is the need to show youngsters the importance of developing social skills and participating in school activities, which can benefit them now and in the future.

The findings from the AddHealth study were presented at the Royal Economic Society’s annual conference in England.

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Coffee Reduces Risk of Liver Cancer

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — The dangers of excessive alcohol consumption are well documented. Now comes a new report from the World Cancer Research Fund International that states the chances of contracting liver cancer go up significantly with as few as three alcoholic drinks daily.

Scientists made this discovery through an analysis of almost three dozen studies involving more than eight million people.

However, drinkers and non-drinkers alike may be able to reduce their risk of liver cancer by drinking coffee, based on research from the same study. According to the report, a single cup of coffee daily may cut the chance of contracting liver cancer by 14 percent.

Previous studies have shown that coffee and its extracts lessen the inflammation of genes that can cause cancer in the liver.

An estimated 24,550 people die each year in the U.S. from liver and intrahepatic duct cancers, according to the American Cancer Society.

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Many US Kids Are Skipping Lunch

Fuse/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — Breakfast is often touted as the most important meal of the day but in reality, all three repasts are on equal footing.

That's why a new study from the Nestlé Research Center is somewhat alarming: it claims that millions of kids ages 4 to 13 are not eating lunch regularly.

Based on stats from the 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a whopping 13 percent of youngsters ages 4 to 8 don't eat lunch while an even greater number of 9- to 13-year-olds -- 17 percent -- are also eschewing lunch.

Things actually get worse on the weekend for the older kids in the study since one in four also don't bother having lunch.

Study author Kevin Mathias contends, "This study highlights an opportunity for both government and the food industry to develop new strategies to encourage children and adolescents to consume a healthy lunch."

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Quit Procrastinating! It Could Save Your Life

iStock/Thinkstock(SHERBROOKE, Quebec) — Don't put stuff off until tomorrow that you can do today, especially since your life might depend on it.

According to one study, people who tend to procrastinate are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension, two conditions that can shorten one's life.

Participants in research conducted at Bishop University in Canada filled out questionnaires prepared by the psychology department that delved into their personality, health and the way they cope with stress.

Generally speaking, people who were older, less educated and were habitual procrastinators are more prone to CVD and high blood pressure.

While the researchers didn't establish a definitive link between procrastination and serious diseases, it's presumed that people who don't get around to doing things right away add more stress to their lives when they finally do.

Another theory is that they also delay healthy habits such as eating right, exercise and quitting smoking.

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Top Pediatricians Group Urges Metric System to Solve Dosing Problems

vectomart/iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Each year, more than 70,000 kids visit the emergency room as a consequence of unintentional medication overdose.

The American Academy of Pediatrics believes one major reason for overdose is that liquid medication is prescribed in the form of teaspoons, a practice ripe for inaccuracy, according to researchers,  since a run-of-the-mill teaspoon in the kitchen may hold more than an actual Imperial tablespoon of medicine.

Researchers also say that people do not know the difference between tablespoon and teaspoon.  

In light of this, the AAP is encouraging pharmacies and doctors to use the metric-based system, specifically the milliliter, when measuring out doses for kids.

The group is also calling on pharmacies, hospitals, and health centers to distribute appropriate milliliter-based dosing devices, such as syringes.

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Inside Parents' Struggle to Choose Risky Prenatal Surgery

Courtesy Ross Family(PHILADELPHIA) -- Luelle Ross seems like a typical 1-year-old girl in many ways, playing with her toys and going for a ride in her stroller. But while her life is just getting started, it has already been a long journey for her parents.

Before Luelle was even born, she was diagnosed with spina bifida, and her parents, Shelly and Bobby Ross, decided to take the radical step of having their daughter operated on while she was still in the womb.

Spina bifida, a developmental spinal condition, is one of the most common birth defects. It affects roughly 1,500 babies in the United States each year, according to the National Institutes of Health.

Diagnosed within the first few weeks of pregnancy, spina bifida occurs when the backbone and the spinal column do not form properly, leaving a gap in the spine. Left untreated, babies with the condition could be born with developmental problems, nerve damage or even be paralyzed.

“We were terrified,” said Shelly Ross, 27. “They said your options are to terminate, to get this historical post-birth surgery for spina bifida or there is this newer surgery that they will do in-utero that you could maybe qualify for.”

That new surgery, performed while the baby is still in the mother's womb, and Luelle’s birth are documented in a new three-part series airing this week on PBS, starting Tuesday at 8 p.m., titled Twice Born: Stories from the Special Delivery Unit.

The docu-series highlights the doctors of the Special Delivery Unit of the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, known as “CHOP” for short, and follows four families from across the country for 14 months as they undergo life-changing procedures to correct birth defects.

CHOP is one of only a few hospitals nationwide that perform fetal surgery. Out of roughly 4,000 fetal surgeries conducted in the United States, about 25 percent have been done at CHOP.

Just this year alone, the unit at CHOP will evaluate more than 1,500 pregnant mothers and conduct 150 to 200 prenatal surgeries, according to hospital officials.

Dr. Scott Adzick, the chief of pediatric surgery at CHOP, has been performing fetal surgeries for more than 30 years. He helps families decide if the surgery is right for them.

“Personally I try to put myself in the place of that parent, for what I would want for my child,” Adzick said. “But if you put the family and the child up like this, and you do the very best you can for them in an honest way and compellingly and frankly, and then you know they can decide, and what they decide I think will be the right thing for them.”

But it’s not always an easy decision for parents to opt for the in-utero surgery, especially for a family like the Rosses, who are deeply religious.

“It was hard,” Shelly Ross said. “You want a doctor to say, ‘Here are your options, this is the best one and we can guarantee this,’ but they couldn’t, on either surgery. They couldn’t say that they could guarantee that [Luelle] would walk or that ‘we can guarantee that she will survive.’ They both had risks, so it was really hard.”

In the end, Shelly and Bobby decided to go ahead with the surgery because they said they wanted to give their daughter the best chance they could at a better quality of life.

“Shelly said, ‘We had to turn off the emotions and go by facts,’” said Bobby Ross, 33.

Dr. Julie Moldenhauer, an attending physician at the Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment and the director of the CHOP Special Delivery Unit, is often the bearer of bad news for families grappling with these difficult situations.

“A good day for me is when I don’t make anybody cry,” she said. “That’s a good day.”

Moldenhauer is tasked with counseling parents every day on how to treat their baby’s condition. She was also the doctor who walked the Rosses through their decision to go through with the in-utero surgery.

“It’s really hard to tell parents the news that you know that they don’t want to hear,” Moldenhauer said. “Every pregnancy is met with expectation and what’s the life going to be like for your child. What happens in that room, over that course of one hour when you sit down and explain what this course is going to look like in a few years, you can imagine it takes the breath out of a family.”

For those mothers who qualify for fetal surgery, the procedure takes place between 19 and 25 weeks of pregnancy.

“The reason why we chose to do it is because it did improve the outcome by 50 percent,” Bobby Ross said. “So there was enough success for us to justify the gamble.”

For the spina bifida in-utero surgery, while the mother is under anesthesia, doctors locate the safest place to make an incision in the uterus, just enough to reach the baby. Once the uterus is open, the baby’s back is revealed and the hole in the baby’s spine is closed to prevent further damage to the spinal cord.

The highly skilled team of specialists at CHOP performed the in-utero surgery on Shelly and Luelle for only about an hour, but risks to both mother and baby could have been fatal, doctors noted. Shelly could have experienced complications during the procedure, from bleeding and tearing to breathing problems.

Shelly’s surgery was a success, but afterwards, Shelly developed complications. At 34 weeks into her pregnancy, she was admitted to CHOP, and remained there until she gave birth. The family packed up their lives in Massachusetts to move to Philadelphia so they could be together full-time.

After weeks of constant hospital supervision, Shelly gave birth to Luelle, who was born at 6 pounds, 12 ounces, and with a small scar on her back from the in-utero surgery.

“The lu- derivative means light and -elle means bright and shining, so she is a bright and shining light,” Bobby Ross said.

For patients like Luelle who suffer from spina bifida, the surgery is only the beginning. She will have to endure years of monitoring and medical attention as she grows older. It’s a condition that will follow her for the rest of her life.

“Fetal surgery for spina bifida is not a cure,” said Dr. Adzick. “Under the proper circumstances it can make the baby better -- better chance to walk, better chance for normal mental development....We also need to follow these kids long-term...to make sure that the benefits are durable.”

But for this young family, Luelle is a light that will only get brighter in the years to come.

“She’s going to be the type of person who will endure the worst this life has to throw at her with a smile because she’s endured a lot already,” Shelly Ross said. “And yet the moment I walk in the door, the moment she walks in the door smiling and ‘Hi,’ you know she’s already been a light.”

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Why You Should Care About GNC's New Supplement Guidelines

GNC / PR Newswire(NEW YORK) -- After being one of four companies to be accused of selling phony dietary supplements, GNC announced Monday that it will institute better testing guidelines.

Health experts say consumers should still be vigilant when picking out their herbal pills and remedies.

Here's what you need to know:

What happened?

The New York State attorney general sent cease-and-desist letters to GNC, Target, Walgreens and Walmart in February, barring them from selling store-brand supplements in the state. The attorney general's office noted at the time that it had tested these supplements for plant DNA listed on the bottles, such as echinacea, ginseng and St. John's Wort, as part of an ongoing investigation. The attorney general's office said it found that 79 percent of the products either had none of the plant DNA listed or were contaminated with unlisted ingredients.

"When consumers take an herbal supplement, they should be able to do so with full knowledge of what is in that product and confidence that every precaution was taken to ensure its authenticity and purity," New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman said Monday as GNC announced its more stringent testing guidelines.

"When it comes to consumer health, we expect companies to reach a high safety bar. Without tests and safeguards, including those that rule out dangerous allergens, these supplements pose unacceptable risks to New York families," Schneiderman added. "I urge all herbal supplements manufacturers and retailers to join GNC in working with my office to increase transparency and put the safety of their customers first."

GNC and Schneiderman announced on Monday that they had come to an agreement about more rigorous company-wide testing standards that dig deeper into the supply chain. GNC said that further internal and third-party testing has found it to be in line with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's current good manufacturing practices.

"As our testing demonstrated, and this agreement affirms beyond any doubt, our products are not only safe and pure but are in full compliance with all regulatory requirements," said GNC's CEO, Michael Archbold.

It is the first of the four companies to make such a move, but Walgreens Inc. released the following statement: "As we said earlier, we take these issues very seriously. We continue to review this matter and also intend to continue cooperating and working with the attorney general of New York."

Walmart weighed in as well: "Walmart has been complying with the New York Attorney General’s legal requests by submitting information and we will continue to work with his office. The specific products called into question were tested by the manufacturers during and at the end of production and the results confirmed that the ingredients on the label were present and the products were not adulterated."

Target did not respond to ABC News' request for comment.

Why are supplements different from other drugs?

Clinical dietitian Lisa Cimperman, who works at UH Case Medical Center in Cleveland, Ohio, said consumers should remember that dietary supplements are not subject to the same safety and efficacy testing as drugs.

A 1994 law called the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act made supplement manufacturers responsible for safety and proper labeling -- not the FDA. The FDA does not approve these supplements before they hit shelves, according to the agency's website.

"We don't know that anything you're taking is actually going to do anything," Cimperman told ABC News. "At the very least, you might be wasting money. At the worst, you might be taking something potentially dangerous."

What's the danger?


"A lot of people might think, 'Oh, it's not a big deal,'" Cimperman said of people taking supplements, adding that patients can't even remember everything they're taking. "It's a false sense of safety and security thinking these things are completely innocuous, they're just vitamins. Anything in very, very high doses or if it's been adulterated can have negative outcomes."

Some patients can have severe allergic reactions to undeclared allergens, but that's not the only thing to worry about, Cimperman said. She pointed to the case of a weight-loss supplement that sent people to the hospital with liver failure in recent years. Some needed liver transplants as a result, she said.

"It's certainly true as well that not all of them are bad and adulterated," Cimperman said. "But wading through and sorting out the good from the bad is difficult."

What should you do?

First, Cimperman said it's crucial to keep your doctor in the loop regarding supplements you're taking. Even if they're perfectly labeled, they can react with your prescription medications. For instance, vitamin K cancels out the effects of some blood thinners, she said.

She said to look for labels that say USP, for U.S. Pharmacopoeia, which independently tests and certify dietary supplements, she said. The four store brands in the the New York attorney general's investigation do not carry this seal.

"We really need to be informed consumers," Cimperman said. "We need to do some digging before we actively start taking these supplements. You really need to involve the doctor in the conversation."

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What the Inside of Your Fridge Says About You

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Show us your fridge!

That's the popular demand of users on Periscope, Twitter's new live-streaming app released last Thursday.

Showing the contents of your fridge apparently gets you lots of "hearts," users say, and no one -- not even self-professed paranormal investigators -- are free from fridge viewing requests.

 

No one is safe from fridge Q's on Periscope, not even paranormal investigators. pic.twitter.com/LrJPxfQ8B6

— Leah Herbert (@itfeltfar) March 28, 2015



And the obsession over the contents of a person's refrigerator probably stems from the fact you can tell a lot about someone based on what's inside their fridge, according to marketing expert John Stonehill.

Stonehill is also a self-proclaimed "Refrigerator Dating Expert," and he runs the blog "Check Their Fridge," where he analyzes the fridges of people's dates and predicts their compatibility.

"It's true that we are what we eat," Stonehill told ABC News. "From someone's fridge, you can get a true idea of their health, lifestyle, income and even what kind of romantic partner they'll be."

 

 

A look inside the @GMA studio fridge – can you tell we love our coffee? #FridgeView #SocialSquare pic.twitter.com/jXehj8v3HF

— Good Morning America (@GMA) March 30, 2015



The first thing Stonehill usually examines is the model and condition of someone's fridge, which tells a lot about their social class and income, he said.

"When I was first getting started in my career, I had this really crappy fridge I shared with my roommate that we held together with duct tape," he said. "Of course, common sense tells us that people with higher-end models are probably richer and farther along in their careers."

Once inside, a fridge's hygiene says a lot about someone's personality and quality of life, Stonehill said.

 

 

I've decided I'm just going to use Periscope for stupid stuff and press events. Thanks for tuning into my fridge tour pic.twitter.com/rdC04eZl2E

— Tom Warren (@tomwarren) March 30, 2015



"A messy chaotic fridge means you probably have an equally chaotic life," Stonehill said. "But a regularly empty fridge is also probably a sign a person is constantly busy and won't be an available partner."

"And if you see someone with an extra clean fridge with all their meals for the week labelled and planned out, you also want to stay away," Stonehill added. "That person is probably really controlling."

And from the brands inside someone's fridge, Stonehill said you can figure out where they're from, what they like to do and their social views.

 

 

Yes! Another #fridge!!! #Periscope #fridgeFriday pic.twitter.com/4C1Q02VNkE

— José Antonio Márquez (@joseeight) March 28, 2015

 

"Certain brands are popular in certain geographical areas," Stonehill said. "There's also lot of politics in the food world, and you can sometimes tell what social causes people support based on what brands they do and don't have in their fridge."

"If someone has a lot of organic foods and reusable containers, they're likely environmentally conscious," Stonehill added. "And if you see three different brands of beers and appetizer foods, that person is probably very social and hosts a lot of gatherings and parties."

 

watchin your fridge periscope like pic.twitter.com/vderDD2urG

— Lizzie O'Leary (@lizzieohreally) March 29, 2015

 

Your fridge can also be an accurate reflection of your health, according to ABC News Nutrition and Wellness Editor David Zinczenko.

"Your refrigerator tells you how much control over your food, body and health you really have and how much of that control you're ceding to the food industry," Zinczenko said.

 

Watched a guy on #Periscope showing off his fridge. pic.twitter.com/j4s7tVKsDx

— Prasoon Singh (@PrsnSingh) March 29, 2015



An empty fridge with lots of shelf space means you likely have a more heavily stocked pantry, which usually stores processed foods that don't go bad for a long while, Zinczenko said.

"That means you're likely to have a lot of empty calories in your diet," he explained.

The average American now gets 60 percent of his or her calories from processed food, Zinczenko added, citing a recent study by the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

 

 

Our #London office is now #addicted to #Periscope - we've shown the contents of our fridge at least 8 times this morn!! #havas @HAVASLYNXEU

— Sarah Price (@_sgprice) March 30, 2015



If you see a lot of takeout containers, you're probably the kind of person that likes to let other people make decisions and think for you, Zinczenko said, adding that takeout people probably have a lot of excessive salt, sugar and fat in their diets.

"The leftover quesadillas from last week's takeout are never coming back to style," he said. "When it comes to food, nostalgia is not a good thing."

On the other hand, a fridge full of a variety of dairy, vegetables, meats and fruits is a good sign, Zinczenko said.

If that's the case, "chances are you're the kind of person who has control over what he or she eats, and who primarily eats real food," he said.

 

 

Quite possibly the best #fridge seen on @periscopeco thus far pic.twitter.com/Xzf5OdFMsL

— Jonathan Haysom (@JonoH) March 28, 2015



And if you're this person with a Tide to-go pen in your fridge?

 

 

People put Tide in their fridge? #periscope pic.twitter.com/xpFM6d4eZH

— Dr Nic (@drnic) March 29, 2015



"If you need a stain remover inside your refrigerator, you're basically admitting that you can't get food from the refrigerator to your mouth without something really messy happening in between," Zinczenko said.

 

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