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iStock/Thinkstock(MIAMI) -- The devastating effects of the Zika virus on the brains of fetuses go beyond microcephaly, according to a new study published Tuesday in the medical journal Radiology.

Researchers evaluated brain scans of fetuses and infants with suspected Zika infection and found that in addition to microcephaly there were severe abnormalities in 94 percent of infants. The researchers studied 17 babies and fetuses with confirmed Zika diagnosis and 28 with suspected Zika infection.

Viral infection of a pregnant woman has been linked to increased risk of microcephaly in the fetus, but researchers are still learning how the virus affects brain development.

Dr. Dorothy Bulas, the section head of ultrasound and fetal imaging in the Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology at Children’s National Health System in Washington, D.C., said the Zika infection has a "unique" effect on developing fetuses compared to other infections.

"This is a very unique virus that seems to attack the fetus directly," she said. "We haven’t really seen [brain abnormalities] as severe in other infections.”

Researchers reported finding serious abnormalities of the corpus callosum, the thick bundle of nerves that connects the two halves of the brain. Abnormalities there can cause severe neurological problems. They also noted that the majority of babies had calcium deposits throughout the brain that tended to occur in the spot where the gray matter on the outer portion of the brain meets the white matter within the inner portion of the brain. A small portion of the babies also had abnormalities of the eyes.

They also saw ventriculomegaly -- enlargement of the fluid spaces in the brain -- in over 94 percent of babies.

In some of these children, the oversize ventricles made up for the missing brain tissue, so their head size was not abnormally small. This could be a worrying sign since it means that even fetuses who appear "normal" on fetal ultrasound could be suffering from birth defects related to Zika exposure.

Bulas pointed out that the paper and the detailed fetal MRI scans published will help radiologists evaluating pregnant women who have had Zika infection to determine if fetuses are showing effects of Zika infection.

"The power of fetal MRI is that it allows us to examine the details of the brain," she said. "I think fetal MRI has been underutilized, and I think in a scenario like this it can be very helpful for confirming an injured brain."

The new paper was published as Florida doctors confirmed Tuesday they are studying an infant who has signs of past Zika infection but not microcephaly. Doctors from the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine said an infant girl they are treating did not have microcephaly but had calcium deposits in her brain and pigment changes in her retina.

"It just tells us that there was a bacteria or a virus in the brain and that virus has left us with some calcifications," Dr. Audina Berrocal of the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute at the University of Miami told ABC News affiliate WPLG-TV. "Babies with early intervention and the right support, sometimes they compensate for those changes that we find early."

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- High prescription drug prices in the United States are largely due to drug monopolies and restrictions on price negotiations, according to a new study from Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School.

The review, published Tuesday in Journal of American Medical Association, focused on understanding why U.S. drug costs are so high compared to other industrialized countries. The study authors reviewed medical and health policy literature from January 2005 to July 2016, looking at articles addressing the source, justification and consequences of drug prices in the U.S.

Researchers looked at drug costs in the U.S. and found that per capita, U.S. drug spending dwarfed other industrialized countries. Spending per capita on prescription drugs in 2013 was on average $858, which was more than double that of 19 other industrialized nations.

They found the most important factor that permits high drug pricing is “market exclusivity,” related to patents and “monopoly rights” for new drugs. This means a new drug will not be threatened on the marketplace by a generic drug for a set amount of time.

“This research was pulling together lots of strands in one overall review,” Dr. Aaron Kesselheim, study author and associate professor of medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, told ABC News, explaining there is not one easy solution. It’s a “very complex issue with lots of moving parts.”

Introducing generic competitors in the marketplace is a common mechanism for prices to drop. However, certain common forms of new drugs are guaranteed a period of five to seven years before a generic competitor can be sold.

Additionally, drug manufacturers can also receive patents lasting more than 20 years for inventions that are “novel," “useful” and “non-obvious.”

“Although brand-name drugs comprise only 10 percent of all dispensed prescriptions in the United States, they account for 72 percent of drug spending,” the study authors wrote.

Common medications such as a steroid inhaler for asthma costs over $300 a month in the U.S., compared to about $35 in France. Insulin, a life-saving medication for diabetics, is about eight times more expensive here.

We wanted to “present a bigger picture ... to help inform [policy] making and thinking about the subject,” Kesselheim told ABC News. To “present a larger 10,000 feet vision of the issue.”

Officials from the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, which represents pharmaceutical companies in the U.S., said countries with lower drug pricing face their own complications related to a nationally regulated drug price system.

“Price differences that may exist between the United States and other countries are often achieved through price controls that result in restricted access to medicines and fewer choices for patients,” Holly Campbell, a spokesperson for the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, told ABC News in an email.

Campbell pointed out patients in Europe may wait longer to get access to cancer medicines compared to patients in the United States and have access to far fewer medicines.

“Instead of focusing on proposals that will stifle innovation, we need to concentrate on pragmatic solutions, including increasing competition for older medicines, modernizing the drug discovery and development process, removing barriers that limit paying for value and engaging and empowering consumers,” she said.

Though high prices are often justified by citing the high cost of drug development, the investigators did not find evidence of an association in the study. The proportion of revenue of the ten largest pharmaceutical companies that is invested in research and development is only about 7 to 21 percent, according to the review.

The study suggests several cost-reducing strategies, including enforcing more stringent requirements for exclusivity of rights, allowing for price negotiations by large payers, enhancing competition by generic drug availability and generating more evidence for cost-effectiveness of therapeutic alternatives.

In many countries with national health insurance systems, a delegated body negotiates drug prices and will not cover products if cost-to-benefit calculations are unreasonable. However, in the U.S., the negotiating power of the payer is constrained for multiple reasons.

Issues for U.S. payers include the fact that Medicare is federally prevented from securing low drug costs. Additionally, private insurance companies have used third-party prescription benefit management companies, which have been found to sometimes have less incentive to lower overall drug costs, according to the study. There have been isolated examples of aggressive price negotiation but it is not common, according to the researchers.

Kesselheim said both patients and legislators should take action to bring down drug costs.

“Everybody can do their part and try to bring more price rationality to the system,” he said, suggesting patients need to openly discuss the cost of drugs with their physicians and ask about less expensive alternatives. Physicians need to recognize the impact of high drug costs and be mindful of their prescribing choices, Kesselheim added.

He said their research has shown it will take a “multi-prong approach” with policy makers, physicians and patients all taking part.

“People should be calling the legislation to express their concern about the issue, and policy makers need to take this issue seriously,” Kesselheim said. “I think there are lots of things everyone can do to move forward.”

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- The upward trend of motor vehicle deaths that began in late 2014 has continued to surge through the first half of 2016, according to preliminary estimates from the National Safety Council.

The non-profit group, using data from state authorities, said deaths on U.S. roadways since January have increased 9 percent from the same period last year and 18 percent from two years ago.

The council estimates that 19,100 people have died and 2.2 million people were injured in motor vehicles from January to the end of June.

2015 marked the largest year-over-year increase in vehicle-related deaths in 50 years, according to the council.

The council warns that the grim trend is not showing any signs of improvement.

“Our complacency is killing us,” said Deborah A.P. Hersman, president and CEO of the National Safety Council. “One hundred deaths every day should outrage us. Americans should demand change to prioritize safety actions and protect ourselves from one of the leading causes of preventable death.”

U.S. roadways have seen a spike in the number of drivers since gasoline prices and unemployment rates have fallen, likely contributing to more drivers on the road and more accidents.

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iStock/Thinkstock(ORLANDO, Fla.) -- A Florida teen has become only the fourth person in the last 50 years to survive an infection from "naegleria fowleri" -- also commonly known as the "brain-eating amoeba."

Sebastian DeLeon, 16, continues his recovery after contracting the infection earlier this month.

DeLeon was taken to Florida Children's Hospital in Orlando, Florida, with a severe headache on Aug. 8. Doctors believe the teen, a camp counselor, was exposed to the amoeba at a freshwater lake earlier in the week.

Immediately after arriving in the emergency room, DeLeon's doctors suspected a serious infection, especially since the teen had early signs of meningitis. Tests of DeLeon's spinal fluids found evidence of the amoeba, an infection that is fatal in 97 percent of cases.

"He presented on Friday and had a worsening headache on Saturday," Dr. Humberto Liriano, who treated DeLeon, told reporters Tuesday. "The boy was hospitalized on Sunday, 30 hours after first developing a headache."

Doctors took quick action to save DeLeon, lowering the teen's body temperature and putting him in an induced coma.

Doctors at Florida Children's Hospital were also able to get quick access to a rare medication currently being investigated by the U.S. Centers of Disease Control and Prevention called "miltefosine," which has shown some promise in killing the amoeba. Since the medication may not work quickly enough to stop the damage from the amoeba, the doctors made the decision to put DeLeon in an induced coma and lower his overall body temperature to just 33 degrees in order to keep the amoeba still.

"The amoeba loves warm water and you cool it and the amoeba becomes a cyst," Liriano explained.

The amoeba is naturally occurring in fresh water lakes and ponds. It can cause a fatal infection when it travels up the nasal passage to the brain.

DeLeon remained in an induced coma for days with medical staff monitoring his vital signs.

"We watched and waited for Sebastian while he was in the coma," Liraino said.

A few days later doctors woke him up and removed his breathing tube. According to Liraino, DeLeon was speaking hours later.

"He's walking, talking. It's a miracle," said Liraino.

DeLeon's mother thanked the "wonderful team" at the hospital that treated her son.

"God has given us a miracle for having our son back and having him full of life," she said. "We are so thankful for the gift of life."

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- At least 18 people were evaluated and 14 people were transported to hospitals after a suspected mass overdose in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles Monday. Health officials said they believe the overdoses were caused by the synthetic marijuana drug known as "spice."

Symptoms of the overdoses include violent behavior, seizures and altered levels of consciousness, according to Los Angeles Fire Department press officials.

"We don't have toxicological confirmation, but it's presumably spice, which is a synthetic type of cannabis or marijuana," Dr. Marc Eckstein, the Los Angeles Fire Department medical director and EMS bureau commander, told reporters on the scene. "Because it's synthetic, nobody for sure knows what active ingredients are in there, the strength is variable."

Last Friday the LAFD responded to another incident where 50 people were evaluated for overdose symptoms and 38 people were transported to a local hospital for suspected overdoses related to spice, according to an LAFD spokesman. He confirmed to ABC News the drug has become a growing problem for officials.

"The drug use here is very widespread amongst the homeless population here in the Skid Row area," Eckstein told ABC News station KABC-TV. "People would use or smoke spice at their own peril, they're taking their lives into their own hands."

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DigitalVision/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — Children and teens from the ages of 2 to 18 should consume no more than 25 grams of sugar a day, according to new guidelines issued by the American Heart Association (AHA).

The AHA is also recommending that children younger than 2 should consume no foods or drinks with added sugars.

“Strong evidence supports the association of added sugars with increased cardiovascular disease risk in children through increased energy intake, increased adiposity and dyslipidemia,” the AHA said in its scientific statement released Monday.

The guidelines mean that these children and teens can have roughly 6 teaspoons of added sugar daily, amounting to around 100 calories.

Translated to every day foods, kids’ sugar intake should not exceed what is found in two bowls of spaghetti with tomato sauce or four corn dogs or three cheeseburgers.

“We’re talking about added sugar, not the naturally occurring sugars found in dairy products or fruit and really there is mounting evidence that sugar is the major culprit, probably more so than fat and salt, in our diets,” said Dr. Jennifer Ashton, ABC News’ senior medical contributor, who has a master’s degree in nutrition.

“We know it triggers addiction centers in the brain. It triggers inflammation in our body, the stimulation of fat around our organs,” Ashton said of added sugar. “All of that puts on a pathway to heart disease.”

The AHA also advised that children should have no more than one sugar-sweetened beverage per week.

Ashton recommends making children a smoothie made with low-fat milk and berries instead of buying them a sugary drink.

She said the AHA is targeting “future heart patients” with the new guidelines.

“American Heart Association [is] taking the lead in targeting future patients that they don't want to have heart disease," she added.
 
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Courtesy Sebastien Lagree(NEW YORK) -- Sebastien Lagree is the creator of the patented Lagree Fitness Method, inventor of the patented Megaformer and Supra tilting-axes resistance workout machines, owner of Lagree Fitness Studio in Los Angeles and a celebrity fitness trainer. Kim Kardashian, Vanessa Hudgens and Sofia Vergara are just some of the A-list stars who are devotees of Lagree's training method.

Lagree will lead a live-streamed workout Wednesday on ABC News' Good Morning America for “Workout Wednesday." The workout will incorporate all the elements of physical fitness and some elements of Lagree Fitness to develop strength, endurance, core, cardio, balance and flexibility.

Tune in Wednesday starting at 8 a.m. ET, for “Workout Wednesday.” In the meantime, here are some of Lagree's workout tips:

SLOW and CONTROLLED MOVEMENT: The entire Lagree Fitness Method is based on slow and controlled movements. We teach in at least four second counts on the positive and four second counts on the negative contraction. Slow movement or reduced speed movement forces your body to recruit more muscle fibers and activate the slow twitch (ST) muscle fibers.

COMPOUNDED MOVEMENT: Because our classes focuses on efficiency, we keep as many muscles engaged in a same movement as possible. We integrate upper and lower body together in each exercise. In addition to being extremely time efficient, it will automatically trigger the core.

RANGE OF MOTION: Stay in the range of motion where you only feel the muscles you are supposed to work. Avoid big or "excessive" range of motion. Big range of motion can put too much stress on the joints and connective tissues. Lagree Fitness is high intensity but low impact on the joints.

CONSTANT TENSION: The objective of the class is to effectively stimulate your ST muscle fibers to get that tone and well defined physique. The fibers need at least 60 seconds of constant and continuous tension, so it's important to "stay" in the movement for as long as possible and avoid taking breaks (unless you must absolutely need to).

TIMING: Try to do each exercise for at least 60 seconds to stimulate the ST muscle fibers, which is the endurance/fat burning fiber.

WORKOUT AT YOUR OWN PACE: Each body will adapt differently, so it's very important to go at your own pace.

FLOW: The sequences are organized to keep working on the same group of muscles. This will also keep the heart rate up.

And here are his tips to maximize your workout burn:

YOU CAN'T OUT-TRAIN A BAD DIET: If you really want to be lean, then you must stop eating junk food. No matter how often and how long you train, as long as you eat junk food, you will have a hard if not impossible time burning the extra fat.

IT'S NOT HOW LONG YOU WORKOUT, IT'S HOW YOU WORKOUT: Focus on form and intensity, not on how much time you are actually spending at the gym. The body responds to stimulation, not time. If there is not enough stimulation, the body is just burning calories. You must force the body to adapt.

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iStock/ThinkstockBy DR. JENNIFER ASHTON, ABC News Senior Medical Contributor

It looks like emergency room doctors and nurses are more nervous than they need to be.

A national survey of ER patients, doctors and nurses found that 80 percent of doctors and nurses are worried patients may feel offended if their sexual orientation is questioned and, therefore, may avoid asking about it.

However, according to the survey, only 11 percent of patients say they would feel offended.

It's important for doctors to know your sexual orientation because it helps them use appropriate and respectful language. It can also be important in helping to counsel patients on risk-reducing practices, testing and treatments.

Knowing a patient's sexual orientation also helps healthcare providers know the whole person, not just a symptom or diagnosis.

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iStock/Thinkstock(MIAMI) — The fight to stop an outbreak of locally transmitted Zika was complicated last week after a second transmission site was located in the Miami area. Florida Gov. Rick Scott confirmed on Friday there was a new outbreak of locally transmitted Zika in Miami Beach that has left at least five people infected, bringing the total number of locally transmitted cases to 36.

The site was announced as health officials continue to try and clear a separate site where the virus is being transmitted by mosquitoes.

Here's a look at how the first-ever outbreak of locally transmitted Zika in the continental U.S. has affected people throughout the region.

Students Get Zika Prevention Lessons


Monday marks the first day of school for Florida students in the Miami area and government officials are hoping they can teach students to stop Zika transmission and how to protect themselves.

 

Our students/parents recognize importance of staying protected. Clothing/repellent distribution event. #Zika pic.twitter.com/QhObEw4WN3

— Miami Dade Schools (@MDCPS) August 21, 2016

 

Schools are getting extra bug spray and teachers are getting training on how to teach students to protect themselves from mosquito bites. Additionally, students are now being allowed to wear long sleeves and pants, even if they don't match their uniform.

NIH Official Warns Gulf States at Risk


Dr. Anthony Fauci, the director of the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, warned that many other states, especially "those along the Gulf Coast" could be at risk for an outbreak of locally transmitted Zika.

"I would not be surprised if we see cases in Texas, in Louisiana, particularly now where you have a situation with flooding in Louisiana," Fauci told ABC News' George Stephanopoulos on This Week on Sunday.

He explained that Gulf states have a mix of climate and circumstances that could contribute to an increased risk of a Zika outbreak. However, he said did not think there was a big risk of a nationwide outbreak of the disease.

"When you have a sub-tropical, or semi-tropical region with the right mosquitoes, and individuals who have travel-related cases that are in the environment, it would not be surprising that we will see additional cases, not only in Florida, but perhaps in other of the Gulf Coast states," Fauci said.
 
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ABCNews.com(NEW YORK) -- The skyrocketing price of EpiPens in recent years is putting added pressure on parents as they get ready to send kids back to school prepped for allergic reactions, according to experts.

The EpiPen, which is the last remaining epinephrine injector on the market, has seen a dramatic cash price increase over the past decade, according to Consumer Reports.

The website Good Rx, which Consumer Reports cites and which finds drug prices, currently lists EpiPens as costing around $600 at multiple drug stores.

In 2007, when Mylan Pharmaceuticals took over producing the drug from Merck, the cash price of the pens was about $50, according to a study published in the Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. The device holds $1 of epinephrine, according to Bloomberg.

EpiPens are covered by Medicaid, but private insurance requires patients to hit a deductible before insurance kicks in.

Allergy experts and organizations are concerned that the price spike could have serious health consequences as some parents struggle to pay for the medication before sending children back to school.

Dr. James R. Baker, CEO and chief medical officer of the patient advocacy group Food Allergy Research & Education, said it's not low-income families that are the are likely to suffer but families with high-deductible health plans that may require them to pay thousands out of pocket.

"These patients are faced with a bill for several thousand dollars for several epinephrine auto-injectors if they have not already fulfilled their out-of-pocket requirement under their health plan," Baker told ABC News. "This can be devastating for many families who do not have financial reserves."

Baker said his group has started to hear reports of families taking extreme steps of "stretching" EpiPens to save money.

"Anecdotal reports to us suggest that for some families it’s not unusual to split two-packs of auto-injectors, keep epinephrine auto-injectors past their expiration dates, or delay or ultimately not refill their prescriptions," said Baker. "This is an enormous patient safety issue."

Mylan Pharmaceuticals said in a statement to ABC News that it has provided 700,000 free EpiPens to schools and has given coupons to families who have trouble paying for the medication.

Officials from the company said they realize more needs to be done to help patients with high-deductible plans.

"With changes in the healthcare insurance landscape, an increasing number of people and families are enrolled in high deductible health plans, and deductible amounts continue to rise," company officials said in a statement. "This shift has presented new challenges for consumers, and they are bearing more of the cost. This change to the industry is not an easy challenge to address, but we recognize the need and are committed to working with customers and payors to find solutions to meet the needs of the patients and families we serve."

The company has declined to comment on the price increase, according to the New York Times.

For allergists prepping families for back to school season, the price increase has resulted in a flurry of calls from concerned parents. Dr. Scott Sicherer, Professor of Pediatrics and a researcher at the Jaffe Food Allergy Institute at Mount Sinai in New York, said he recommends parents have at least two EpiPens on hand for children with severe allergies at all times.

It can be especially burdensome for the families with younger children since doctors recommend making sure extra EpiPens are available at places where the child spends much of their time such as school, camp or a relatives home.

"Patients depend on it and we want our patients to carry two units with them at all times," said Sicherer. "For children, they will need more than two units since they will be in different places so they need to keep it in camp or school. We also recommend watching for the expiration date and to renew it when it comes time to.

"It does become a financial burden when they are so expensive."

Sicherer said that there are not many good options for families to save money. While he offers coupons to patients to help out with cost, he said another option is getting a syringe and vial of epinephrine to use in an emergency. But he said that is likely not a good option for many patients, especially for young children.

"We know in emergency situation it can be hard to draw up, there might be problems with underdosing or overdosing and it’s not practical for most people," he said. "It is hard to do that and expect people to do that in an emergency situation."

Sicherer said he hoped legislative action will be taken to help bring down the cost of the drug for patients and families, as well as, further research to see if EpiPens can be used past their current expiration dates.

Multiple members of congress are now also calling on Mylan Pharmaceuticals to explain their pricing.

Sen. Amy Klobuchar, D-Minnesota, has asked the Federal Trade Commission to investigate whether Mylan has violated antitrust laws -- noting that her own daughter carries an EpiPen for her nut allergy.

"Many Americans, including my own daughter, rely on this life-saving product," she wrote. “Although the antitrust laws do not prohibit price gouging, regardless of how unseemly it may be, they do prohibit the use of unreasonable restraints of trade to facilitate or protect a price increase."

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- For some women over 50, the density of their breasts could affect how often they should be screened for breast cancer, based on a new study in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Current recommendations from different health organizations, including the American Cancer Society and National Comprehensive Cancer Network, are mixed. Generally these recommendations advise the average woman to start mammograms somewhere between the ages of 40 and 50, and at intervals between every one to two years.

In the study published Monday, researchers from the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network attempted to understand which groups of women could benefit from more screening and which groups of women could benefit from less screening.

While their simulations found high-risk women with dense breast tissue would benefit from yearly screenings, women at average risk without dense breast tissue could benefit from less frequent screening. They suggested these women could get screened every three years, a departure from all current recommendations in the U.S., which generally recommend annual or biannual screening.

The researchers used simulation data, meaning that they did not conduct the study on living patients, but ran computerized models based on a large database from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium.

Women can be at higher risk for breast cancer due to their genetics, environment or lifestyle according to the American Cancer Society. Almost 250,000 cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in 2016 for U.S. women, with over 40,000 deaths from breast cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening every other year after 50, while the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and the American College of Radiology recommends annual screening starting at 40. The American Society of Breast Surgeons has a hybrid approach, encouraging conversations about risks and benefits with a doctor and encouraging some women to start earlier and others later.

In the new study, researchers found annual screening prevented approximately 15 to 20 breast cancer deaths per 1,000 high-risk women with dense breasts screened. In average-risk women without dense breast tissue, there was not a major change in cancer deaths averted if they switched from annual to triennial screening (4.7 deaths averted during annual screening compared with 3.4 deaths averted), but there was a large decrease in false positives. False positives can mean increased cost, anxiety and unnecessary procedures for patients.

The authors say these low-risk women could consider screening less frequently -- once every three years -- so there are fewer false positives leading to fewer unnecessary biopsies and lower costs.

Dr. Sheldon Feldman, a practicing breast surgeon and chief of breast surgery division of New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, as well as the president of the American Society of Breast Surgeons, said the study was interesting but the findings were too preliminary to lead to recommendations.

“Whether it should be every three years or two years, I would question," said Feldman.

“Certainly less frequent screening based on this data would be reasonable,” said Feldman; however as far as making specific recommendations, "it’s not ready for prime time."

He said the different recommendations have been confusing for both doctors and patients.

“There have been different recommendations from different groups, which change quite frequently,” said Feldman. “It is difficult to have consistent screening recommendations as the technology and landscape shifts with time.”

Despite technological gains in screening, Feldman said, it is “extremely difficult to study and to prove that the benefits outweigh potential risks" and to determine what the optimal screening interval should be.

"The goal, of course, is to find disease early without subjecting patients to unnecessary diagnosis and biopsies," he said.

The study authors said more research is needed to affect current guidelines, but that their findings suggest that it is important to look more closely at the association between breast density and the benefit as well as harm of screening.

Dr. Wendie Berg, a professor of radiology at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Magee-Womens Hospital of UPMC, and one of the co-authors of the BI-RADS system, the widely-used standard for breast imaging classification, said she was concerned that women with less-dense breasts but over all high risk could be misclassified and not be screened as much as they should be, if these preliminary findings affected recommendations.

Berg said that risk models work great for a population, but are less effective for a specific patient.

"At the population level, we can identify women at high risk, but at the individual level they [data models] are not that great," she said. "I think at the end of the day, a woman needs to advocate for herself to get the best screening possible to find breast cancer early."

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ABCNews.com(COCOA BEACH, Fla.) -- Tammy and Brian Bossard are grateful to have their toddler daughter Kennedy home Monday after the 23-month-old was trapped in an air pocket under the family’s boat for more than an hour when the vessel hit power lines and flipped over on Florida’s Indian River.

“We thought we were going to lose her,” an emotional Tammy Bossard said in an interview with ABC News.

The Bossards, of Cocoa Beach, Florida, said it’s "a miracle" that their daughter survived the crash that happened late Friday night as the family was coming home from dinner. The Bossards were able to escape with their 7-month-old daughter, Charlotte, but couldn’t find Kennedy. They could only hear her crying in the darkness.

In her 911 call, Tammy could be heard frantically describing the situation.

“I'm in the river. My boat crashed and I have a baby still in the water. Please God send someone now ... please hurry,” she said.

Brian Bossard said he and his wife couldn’t pinpoint Kennedy’s exact location.

“We couldn't tell if she was in the boat or trapped under the boat or if she was out in the river, because we heard cries, but it sounded like it was just coming from everywhere,” he said.

First responders rushed to the scene and began to search, but after nearly 45 minutes they began to lose hope.

“We were just getting ready to leave and that's when we heard a very light cry,” Cpl. Alan Worthy of the Cocoa Police Department said. “I put my ear up to the side of the boat and I was listening and I could hear that she was right there.”

Kennedy was floating in her life vest in the air pocket. Police say the toddler's life vest saved her life.

"It’s a complete miracle that everything worked like it did, because we shouldn't all be here today," Tammy said.

Kennedy spent two nights at a local hospital and is now home. The Bossards said they were told there's a slight chance Kennedy could develop asthma because her lungs were stressed, but other than that she is expected to be fine.

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ABCNews.com(SATELLITE BEACH, Fla.) -- This Satellite Beach, Florida, couple certainly has their cake and eats it, too!

After 61 years of marriage, Ann and Ken Fredericks still celebrate their anniversary by eating a piece of their original wedding cake.

“It’s finally gotten down to a pretty small piece,” Ann told ABC News of the cake that’s dwindled away over the years.

However, it’s a tasty tradition they hope to continue for years to come -- if it lasts.

“We’re beginning to think we may outlive the tradition,” she laughed. “I’m 82 and my husband is 86 and this year was our 61st wedding anniversary. The cake is only like 3 inches by 4 inches, what we have left of it. So we both enjoyed a very small piece. I’m torn between eating and having it over with or making it last. And then we said, ‘You know, it would be fun if we outlive it.’ That would be a goal for us.”

The happy couple wed on Aug. 19, 1955, and claim the dark fruit cake made by Ann’s grandmother is just as tasty now as it was then -- although the coloring is a bit different.

“It tastes fine. It’s never been in the refrigerator or the freezer,” Ann explained. “I keep it wrapped in saran wrap. When we started the tradition it used to be wax paper because that’s all we had back then. It doesn’t spoil. Dark fruit cake is made with brandy and it’s made with enough alcohol in it so it doesn’t spoil. But let me tell you -- it looks black. It’s that dark now after all these years.”

It’s been preserved for generations thanks to her grandmother’s recipe, which Ann wishes she had to this day.

“The caterer at the reception gave my mother the top tier of our cake. My grandmother made it,” she recalled. “She used her recipe and I wish I had that recipe. It hung in her cellar in cheesecloth to age and then it was taken to a baker and sealed with an almond glaze. Dark fruit cake is moist and it will bleed through regular white frosting. It was glazed with almond glaze then topped with white icing.”
Each year, the Fredericks pour a shot of brandy over the slice of cake to re-moisten it. It’s safe to say that’s one of their ingredients to such a healthy marriage.

“Here we are in our 80s and we still love each other. We still go to bed at night and we snuggle,” said Ann.

“We’ve raised three children, put them all through college and we’ve got nine grandchildren. We’ve had a really fortunate life,” she added.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Trying to eat healthy can actually lead to eating disorders, according to a new report from the American Academy of Pediatrics.

The report, giving guidance to pediatricians on the topics of obesity and eating disorders, focuses on ways that Pediatricians can help, and according to the report, “the lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder in adolescent females are 0.3 percent, 0.9 percent, and 1.6 percent, respectively.”

Teenage obesity continues to be the third most common chronic disease within this age group with no significant change between 2003 and 2012.

 For prevention, the report’s recommendations include discouraging "dieting" and skipping meals, promoting a positive body image and monitoring any weight loss among teens, eating frequent family meals, and asking the teen about bullying.

Even though counseling about weight or weight loss can be a sensitive topic and requires more time, pediatricians are again reminded of the importance.

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iStock/ThinkstockBy DR. JENNIFER ASHTON, ABC News Senior Medical Contributor

Summer thunderstorms can be a common event, but how much do you know about lightning and how to stay safe?

If the forecast calls for thunderstorms, you should postpone your trip to the beach or your outdoor activity, or make sure an adequate safe shelter is readily available. Remember the phrase, "When thunder roars, go indoors."

If you are caught in an open area during a thunderstorm, crouch down in a ball-like position, with your feet and knees together, head tucked and hands over your ears so that you're down low with minimal contact with the ground.

Lightning causes electric currents along the top of the ground that can be deadly from over 100 feet away.

If you're in a group during a thunderstorm, separate from each other -- this will reduce the number of injuries if lightning strikes the ground. You should also stay away from wide open spaces, such as parks, swimming pools and beaches.

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