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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- An 18-year-old man thought to have appendicitis ended up being treated for severe internal injuries after an intense paintball game, according to a new case study.

The unidentified patient came in with severe abdominal pain, no appetite and fever, which is consistent with appendicitis, according to the case study published Thursday in the BMJ medical journal by doctors from University Hospital in London.

However, after the teen was rushed to the operating room, doctors found that his appendix wasn't the problem and that his liver was lacerated and bleeding into his abdomen. Doctors were able to stop the bleeding by "repacking" the liver or applying a special pad and putting pressure on the organ overnight. The liver had to be repacked again the next day until the bleeding finally stopped.

After interviewing the patient, doctors discovered he had taken part in a paintball game two days before and reported being hit twice on his lower right-hand side, according to the case study.

"This represents the first report of paintball-related blunt traumatic injury to the liver," the doctors wrote in the study. "Solid organ injuries of this nature have only been reported three times previously." None of those cases involved liver damage.

The doctors pointed out that paintball pellets have caused serious injuries in the past.

"Pellets with muzzle velocities of 100–300 feet per second are potentially harmful to ocular structures and also to the intra-abdominal solid organs," the authors said. "Participants and physicians must both be aware of the possible dangers associated with this recreational sport."

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Courtesy Greenbrier Christian Academy(CHESAPEAKE, Va.) -- Virginia first-grader Anaya Ellick, 7, has such good handwriting, she beat out 50 other youngsters from around the country to win a national handwriting contest.

If that's not impressive enough, Little Anaya was born without hands.

"There is truly very little that this girl cannot do," principal Tracy Cox of Greenbrier Christian Academy in Chesapeake told ABC News, noting it was her idea to have Anaya enter the competition, open to students in kindergarten to eighth-grade.

"She is a hard worker," Cox said. "She is determined. She is independent. She is a vivacious and a no-excuses type of young lady."

Anaya's penmanship was submitted in the category that encourages the participation of students with cognitive delays, and intellectual, psychical or developmental disabilities. This category is judged by a team of occupational therapists, and the winner is awarded the Nicholas Maxim Special Award for Excellence in Penmanship.

"We looked at her writing and were just stunned to see how well her handwriting was, considering she writes without hands," competition director Kathleen Wright told ABC News. "Her writing sample was comparable to someone who had hands.

Principal Cox said, "She truly has some of the neatest hardworking in her class.”

Anaya's peers treat her no differently than other students, and she keeps up with them, too, Greenbrier founder and superintendent Ron H. White told ABC News.

"I don't think Anaya thinks of it as an obstacle," he said.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Major regulations for e-cigarettes and tobacco products announced this week may not do much to slow down the largest tobacco companies, analysts tell ABC News.

E-cigarettes will face new regulations by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including requirements that affect manufacturing, ingredient labeling and not selling the product to those under the age of 18, the agency announced Thursday.

In addition, California Gov. Jerry Brown signed legislation yesterday prohibiting the sale of cigarettes to anyone under age 21, up from 18, and restricting the use of e-cigarettes in public places in the state. The state also reclassified vapor products as tobacco.

The FDA's rules will especially affect the businesses of smaller e-cigarette makers, which may not have the resources to comply with the agency's approval process, said Michael Lavery, an analyst with Credit Lyonnais Securities Asia (CLSA) Americas in New York. Lavery said that "could be a positive" for larger tobacco companies, such as Altria Group, Reynolds-American and Imperial Brands, he wrote in a research note shared with ABC News. E-cigarettes currently make up less than 1 percent of revenue for all three companies, he noted.

In response to the FDA's regulations, Stifel analyst Chris Growe, who follows the tobacco industry, said the larger tobacco companies are already accustomed to numerous laws governing their products.

"We believe the large tobacco companies can thrive in a heavily regulated world, such as the current conditions in the cigarette category," Stifel analyst Chris Growe wrote in a research note provided to ABC News. "In addition, the level of regulation will be so high that small companies, those typically operating in the E-cig category and other tobacco category, will likely find them to be onerous."

He added: "We believe this will thwart new product innovation from many small companies and favor the large tobacco companies."

The rule extends the FDA's authority over any newly regulated product, including e-cigarettes, not on the market before Feb. 15, 2007. The new regulations will likely take time to be implemented, as the FDA expects that manufacturers will sell their products for up to two years before they submit their product for FDA review. It will take another year for the FDA to review an application once it's submitted.

Lavery said he expects Altria Group to challenge the ban on the company's use of the term "mild" on cigar products, including its Black & Mild brand cigars, which would become regulated after 90 days under the new regulations. Manufacturing cigars with the term would be banned after a one-year transition period. Still, cigars are less than 1 percent of Altria's volumes, Lavery pointed out.

A spokesman for Altria said the company is still reviewing the FDA’s regulations.

“We are concerned that FDA did not update the predicate date. FDA acknowledges that e-vapor products are ‘likely less hazardous’ for individuals compared to continued use of traditional cigarettes,” the spokesman said. “We continue to support legislation in Congress which would change the predicate date and also address other important issues such as setting battery standards and requiring that all e-vapor products be sold in a non-self-service fashion (with adult-only facility exception).”

The Smoke-Free Alternatives Trade Association, the trade group for the vaping industry, said the FDA's actions would ban 99 percent of all vapor products on the market as a result of the Feb. 2007 predicate date.

"Today’s [Thursday's] final rule pulls the rug out from the nine million smokers who have switched to vaping, putting them in jeopardy of returning back to smoking, which kills 480,000 Americans each year and costs the U.S. more than $300 billion in annual health care expenses," the trade association said. “These new regulations create an enormously cost-prohibitive regulatory process for manufacturers to market their products to adult smokers and vapers. It also limits access to the 40 million adult smokers in the U.S. yet to make the switch to vaping and cripples a multi-billion dollar job-creating industry, the majority of which are made of small businesses."

The trade group said the California law would negatively impact 1,400 vaping retail locations that are small businesses, "plus hundreds of manufacturers, distributors and related businesses that contribute to the state’s economy, generating taxes and thousands of jobs.”

“California took a step backwards today by reclassifying vapor products as tobacco," the trade association said in a statement. "Stigmatizing vapor products, which contain no tobacco and treating them the same as combustible tobacco while actively seeking to economically penalize smokers attempting to switch is counterproductive to public health. We ... will continue to work with the legislature, and voters, to educate them on what science says should be embraced as a far less harmful alternative to combustible cigarettes."

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iStock/Thinkstock(WASHINGTON) -- E-cigarettes will face new regulations by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, including requirements that affect manufacturing, ingredient labeling and not selling the product to those under the age of 18, the agency announced Thursday.

The FDA announced a plan to regulate e-cigarettes two years ago, but these are the first concrete regulations issued. The new rules affect not only e-cigarettes but more traditional tobacco products, including cigars, pipe tobacco and hookah tobacco.

“We have more to do to help protect Americans from the dangers of tobacco and nicotine, especially our youth. As cigarette smoking among those under 18 has fallen, the use of other nicotine products, including e-cigarettes, has taken a drastic leap. All of this is creating a new generation of Americans who are at risk of addiction,” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Sylvia Burwell said in a statement Thursday.

“Today’s announcement is an important step in the fight for a tobacco-free generation -- it will help us catch up with changes in the marketplace, put into place rules that protect our kids and give adults information they need to make informed decisions," Burwell said.

Federal officials framed the new regulations as a way to take on the rapidly increasing rates of e-cigarette usage among teens. The new regulations will affect the selling, marketing and manufacturing of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products.

Newly announced prohibitions on selling e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco and cigars to people under 18 or giving free samples will start to be enforced within 90 days, according to the FDA.

Mitch Zeller, director of the Center for Tobacco Products, a part of the FDA, likened the current e-cigarette marketplace to "the wild, wild west," pointing out that there have been reports of e-cigarettes exploding in recent months, causing burns on teens.

"Today is a first step, a foundational step, to bring all these previously unregulated products into the world of being regulated," Zeller said during a news conference Thursday.

Health officials have been concerned that teens and other young adults may view e-cigarettes as an alternative to cigarettes with a rising number of teens using e-cigarettes. A recent survey found current e-cigarette use among high school students has risen sharply, from 1.5 percent in 2011 to 16 percent in 2015, according to the FDA and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

An estimated three million middle and high school students were current e-cigarette users in 2015, according to the FDA. Data also showed high school boys smoked cigars at about the same rate as cigarettes.

To ensure compliance with new regulations, manufacturers of e-cigarettes will have to present their products to the FDA to meet public health standards. The new regulations include new requirements to report ingredients and any potentially harmful aspect of the product. Health warnings will be required on e-cigarette packages and ads and e-cigarette makers must register the places where their products are manufactured.

The new regulations will likely take time to be implemented, as the FDA expects that manufacturers will sell their products for up to two years before they submit their product for FDA review. It will take another year for the FDA to review the product the application.

Industry group Smoke-Free Alternatives Trade Association blasted the FDA for "essentially banning 99 percent of all vapor products" on the market due to requirements that any e-cigarette device introduced after Feb. 15, 2007, be submitted to the FDA for approval.

"Our industry has a long history of supporting sensible science-based regulations, including license requirements, as well as banning sales to minors and adopting child-resistant packaging," SFATA said in a statement. "Today’s final rule pulls the rug out from the nine million smokers who have switched to vaping, putting them in jeopardy of returning back to smoking, which kills 480,000 Americans each year and costs the U.S. more than $300 billion in annual health care expenses."

SFATA said the FDA review process will be costly and claimed that there is growing evidence that e-cigarettes are 95 percent less harmful than combustible cigarettes.

“These new regulations create an enormously cost-prohibitive regulatory process for manufacturers to market their products to adult smokers and vapers," SFATA said.

While most of the regulations will not be implemented for years, prohibiting tobacco sales to those under 18 will start in 90 days. Burwell explained that currently "the absence of federal restriction means enforcement is uneven and sometimes non-existent" in preventing teens from buying e-cigarettes and other tobacco products.

Burwell called the regulations "common sense" actions to protect children from tobacco products.

"As a nation we have agreed for many years that nicotine does not belong in the hands of children," Burwell said during Thursday's new conference. "Progress has been made but the context has changed, we owe it to ourselves to do better."

Zeller said his group is working with state officials on plans to enforce the ban on sales to those under 18 and that they will "hit the ground running."

While regulations addressed many concerns of health officials, the FDA has not banned flavors in e-cigarettes. Flavored cigarettes were been banned in 2009 over concerns they may lead younger teens to smart smoking. Zeller said his group is monitoring how flavors affected users.

“As a physician, I’ve seen first-hand the devastating health effects of tobacco use,” FDA Commissioner Robert M. Califf, said in a statement. “At the FDA, we must do our job under the Tobacco Control Act to reduce the harms caused by tobacco. That includes ensuring consumers have the information they need to make informed decisions about tobacco use and making sure that new tobacco products for purchase come under comprehensive FDA review.”

Some health groups applauded by the move by the FDA, though others said they were disappointed the FDA didn't take further action.

The March of Dimes commended the FDA.

"E-cigarettes are clearly tobacco products, and they should be strictly regulated as such," March of Dimes President Dr. Jennifer L. Howse said in a statement. "Lack of regulation has allowed these products to be marketed and sold without limits, including to pregnant women and youth."

The American Society of Clinical Oncology called the regulations a "crucial step" in regulating tobacco products and understanding the risks and benefits of e-cigarettes.

"Most importantly, we are concerned that e-cigarettes may encourage nonsmokers, particularly children, to start smoking and develop a nicotine addiction. FDA regulation will minimize the potential negative consequences of e-cigarettes and other ENDS [electronic nicotine delivery systems] without undermining their potential to reduce harm as a smoking cessation tool," the group said.

The American Academy of Pediatrics also welcomed the regulations but called on the FDA to do more.

“More work must be done now as e-cigarettes become more and more common in households and communities across the country," the organization said in a statement Thursday. "FDA passed up critical opportunities in this rule by failing to prohibit the sale of tobacco products coming in flavors like cotton candy, gummy bear and grape or to prevent marketing tactics that target children. The Academy also looks forward to a law -- the Child Nicotine Poisoning Prevention Act -- taking effect this summer that will require child-resistant packaging on liquid nicotine containers.”

The American Academy of Pediatrics also welcomed the regulations but called on the FDA to do more.

“More work must be done now as e-cigarettes become more and more common in households and communities across the country," the organization said in a statement Thursday. "FDA passed up critical opportunities in this rule by failing to prohibit the sale of tobacco products coming in flavors like cotton candy, gummy bear and grape or to prevent marketing tactics that target children. The Academy also looks forward to a law -- the Child Nicotine Poisoning Prevention Act -- taking effect this summer that will require child-resistant packaging on liquid nicotine containers.”

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Humane Society of Tampa Bay(TAMPA BAY, Fla.) -- One paralyzed pup is still smiling, despite being abandoned on the doorstep of a Florida shelter.

"Even though she's had some very severe trauma to her spine, she's as sweet as can be," said Sherry Silk, CEO of the Humane Society of Tampa Bay, a no-kill shelter in Tampa, Florida. "... She's bright, alert and she'll give you little kisses."

Silk told ABC News that on Monday morning, the shelter's maintenance worker discovered an animal crate on the property.

Inside was Genie, an estimated 2-and-a-half-year-old Cocker Spaniel mix, and attached to her cage was a note from the dog's previous owner.

It read: “Please help my Genie. Genie (her name) is paralyzed from I believe her hips to her hind legs. I tried to manage her pain with medication from her vet but they only ease her pain and she needs surgery. I cannot afford so I ask that the Animal Health Center heal her and find her a loving forever home. Thank you."

Silk said the shelter's veterinarian's are unsure as to how Genie became paralyzed, but suspect she may have fallen or gotten hit by a car.

In addition to her disability, Genie also has bladder issues that vets are now trying to treat, Silk said.

And although the pup was left behind, Silk said the Humane Society feels no ill will toward Genie's past owners.

"I know that had to be a hard decision to leave her in the middle of the night," she said. "We're doing our best to treat her now and believe with a combination of these medicines, that there will be enough improvements. There are are people that worry about handicapped animals, so I think we'll be able to find her a home."

Silk said the Humane Society of Tampa Bay has been asking for donations to get Genie a set of wheels.

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iStock/Thinkstock(ATLANTA) -- Just in time for World Hand Hygiene Day, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is launching a new campaign Thursday urging medical professionals and patients to prevent healthcare-related infections by keeping their hands clean.

According to the CDC, an estimated 75,000 patients with these types of infections die each year in the hospital.

“Patients depend on their medical team to help them get well, and the first step is making sure healthcare professionals aren’t exposing them to new infections,” CDC Director Tom Frieden said in a statement. “Clean hands really do count and in some cases can be a matter of life and death.”

Dr. Clifford McDonald, an epidemiologist, tells ABC News that hand hygiene is often overlooked in medical facilities.

"We know that right now, on average, healthcare providers clean their hands less than 50 percent of the times that we know they should be cleaning their hands," he says.

As part of the new campaign, the CDC wants patients and their loved ones to speak up.

“We know that patients can feel hesitant to speak up, but they are important members of the health care team and should expect clean hands from providers,” Arjun Srinivasan, the CDC’s associate director for healthcare-associated infection prevention programs, said in a statement. “We know that healthcare providers want the best for their patients, so we want to remind them that the simple step of cleaning their hands protects their patients.”

McDonald says health officials are recommending doctors use alcohol-based solutions before and after seeing a patient.

"These are so effective and they work so rapidly. They allow a higher margin for error in terms of doing it right," he explains.

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iStock/ThinkstockBy DR. JENNIFER ASHTON, ABC News Senior Medical Contributor

Colorectal cancer is not usually considered a disease of younger people, but that's changing. Over the past 20 years, colon cancer rates have increased significantly between the age of 20 and 50.

Quite often, younger people ignore the symptoms, like rectal bleeding, hemorrhoids or worse. Other times, a doctor may dismiss the symptoms, saying, "These people are just too young to have colon cancer."

While the cause of colon cancer remains unknown, doctors are taking a second look at how they diagnose younger patients.

Here's my prescription: Remember that most people who have rectal bleeding don't have cancer. Other symptoms include a change in bowel habits that last more than a few days or abdominal cramping.

The best prevention for colon cancer is not smoking, being physically active and eating a diet rich in vegetables and fruits.

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merznatalia/iStock/Thinkstock(LOS ANGELES) -- California Governor Jerry Brown signed a series of bills into law on Wednesday expanding restrictions on smoking cigarettes and electronic cigarettes.

The most notable of the bills will raise the minimum smoking age in the state of California to 21 from 18. That change makes California the second state in the country to increase the minimum age to purchase tobacco products to 21, behind Hawaii. Brown also signed bills that would restrict use of electronic cigarettes in public and expand non-smoking areas at public schools.

The Los Angeles Times quotes Democratic State Senator Ed Hernandez, who authored the bill, as calling the approval "a signal that California presents a united front against Big Tobacco. Together, we stand to disrupt the chain of adolescent addiction."

The bills were approved earlier in the year, and will become effective on June 9.

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that about 90 percent of tobacco users start before the age of 21.

The bill does exempt active military personnel under the age of 21 from the age increase.

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Medic Image/Getty(NEW YORK) -- Scientists have reported they have grown human embryos in vitro for 12 to 13 days, significantly longer than the previous record of nine days.

If scientists are able to conduct experiments on embryos past 14 days, they may be able to "study all aspects of early human development with unprecedented precision," according to commentators on the two breakthrough studies published Wednesday in Nature and Nature Cell Biology.

Two groups of researchers were able to get embryos to grow for 12 days and 13 days, respectively. Both groups used similar cutting-edge technology in which chemicals and a special medium mimicked a human womb so that the embryos would continue to develop, researchers said.

Part of technology involved creating a method that allowed the embryo to attach in a manner similar to that way it would in the womb. The breakthrough technology also raises ethical questions that were highlighted in an accompanying commentary.

Many countries currently restrict experiments on embryos to the first 14 days. Additionally, the International Society for Stem Cell Research has issued guidelines advising researchers across the globe to stick with this 14-day window. The authors of the commentary point out that experiments reaching close to the 14-day rule may mean medical officials will eventually revise this guideline.

"The 14-day rule was never intended to be a bright line denoting the onset of moral status in human embryos," the authors wrote. "Rather, it is a public-policy tool designed to carve out a space for scientific inquiry and simultaneously show respect for the diverse views on human-embryo research."

The 14-days limit was set due to how an embryo develops, according to the commentary. After approximately two weeks, the embryo starts to develop more distinct structures that will usually develop into a fetus and placenta. The authors note that the timeline was picked to be sensitive to the different views on when "a human embryo obtains sufficient moral status that research on it should be prohibited."

Arthur Caplan, a bioethicist and head of the Division of Medical Ethics at New York University Langone Medical Center, said the breakthroughs means the medical community will have to re-evaluate what is ethical when it comes to experimentation on embryos.

"What is that entity?" asked Caplan, who was not involved in these studies. "Many people believe that it is a full person from conception, but it will renew that debate."

Caplan pointed out that medical officials will have to grapple with the fact that embryonic experimentation past 14 days could lead to important results that help many pregnancies in the future.

"How far can you go with embryo research and how far can you go with editing the genes of embryos to repair them?" Caplan told ABC News. "All of this is in play in the same time."

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Hero Images/Getty(NEW YORK) -- Bo Bigelow and his wife wondered for year why their daughter was different. Bigelow's daughter, Tess, was non-verbal, has gastronintestinal symptoms and seemed to have periodic seizures, but doctors were baffled about the cause.

Bigelow said he and his wife were desperate to understand Tess' condition but that multiple genetic tests didn't give a clear answer. Geneticists figured out that Tess had a mutation on her USP7 gene, but they didn't know if that was at all related to her symptoms.

Bigelow said Tess' doctors ran out of tests to run last year and recommended that he and his wife learn to accept their daughter's condition without a concrete diagnosis. As a last resort, the family put Tess' story on different forms of social media in the hopes of contacting another family going through a similar ordeal.

"I put it out on Facebook on Sunday morning and my wife and thought it would be pretty long process of posting and re-posting," Bigelow said. "By that same evening, I was on the phone with Dr. Mike Fountain at Baylor College."

In just 24 hours, social media was able to do what multiple doctors in various states could not, they found an answer for Tess' symptoms. Fountain, a researcher at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, had been studying USP7 and had found just seven other people with that genetic mutation. A lab associate had seen Bigelow's story and posted on Reddit.

"Someone who shared the lab with Fountain saw it and said, 'Isn’t this the gene you work with?' And he said, 'Yes, it is,'" Bigelow told ABC News.

As a result of reaching out to these specialists, Bigelow said he and his family finally understand what is happening to Tess. The mutation means that the cells "can’t recycle proteins right," which is needed as part of a normal bodily function, Bigelow said.

"You wind up with a neuro-developmental disorder," Bigelow explained in an online blog. "You have intellectual disability and probably autism and seizures."

Tess is now 6 years old but has the mental capacity of an 18-month-old, according to her father.

"She’s almost entirely nonverbal and lot of the time it’s guess work about what she’s thinking or feeling," Bigelow said. "She’s not aware of her own body or own safety, she’ll reach for the hot pan on the stove, everything goes into her mouth. You can’t take the attention away from her for a second."

Bigelow said working with researchers and knowing the reason for Tess' symptoms have been an incredible relief, even though there is not yet a treatment to help her.

"They've been amazing so far. We really just are getting started with them," Bigelow said. "We are hopeful about some sort of experimental treatment."

Bigelow's posting on social media also led a second family to reach out for help. Bigelow said their child also had a USP7 mutation, but instead of having to wait years to know what that meant, they were able to find out within hours.

"I have a feeling we'll be talking more," Bigelow said.

The effects of the genetic mutation are still unclear, but the family has been able to make small changes that help Tess with vision and skin problems, Bigelow said, noting that in recent years after her diet was changed she's appeared to be more outgoing and social.

"She is really sweet girl. She’s very affectionate and very social now and really lovey," Bigelow said. "In her kindergarten she just loves being around her classmates and she’s a little social butterfly."

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- In the fight against the spreading Zika virus, scientists have uncovered an unlikely ally in the form of a bacteria called "Wolbachia."

The Aedes aegypti mosquito, the more abundant of the two species known to spread the Zika virus, are less able to spread the virus if they are exposed to the bacteria, according to a study published today in the medical journal Cell Host & Microbe.

The bacteria is already being used on the same mosquitoes as a way to curb the spread of the dengue virus, which, like Zika, is a flavivirus.

Mosquitoes containing this bacterium did not become infected with the Zika virus when given saliva from other infected mosquitoes, researchers from the Rene Rachou-Fiocruz Research Center in Brazil discovered. When they did the same test in mosquitoes without the Wolbachia bacteria, approximately 85 percent of mosquitoes became infected with the Zika virus.

"The results presented here indicate that [Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes] represent a realistic and effective option to combat the ZIKV [Zika virus] burden in Brazil and potentially in other countries and should be considered as an integral part of future control efforts," the authors concluded.

Dr. William Schaffner, an infectious disease expert at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, told ABC News that experimental treatments like this one may be key to stopping the Aedes aeygpti mosquito, which is notoriously hard to eradicate.

"These are clever ways to try to interrupt the transmission of the virus in an ecologically sensitive way, while we’re waiting to get a vaccine developed," Schaffner said.

The Aedes aegypti mosquito can live indoors and bite during the day, Schaffner noted, making it extremely difficult to kill with normal outdoor spraying. Spraying may need to be used with other experimental treatments, including used genetically modified mosquitoes, to cut down on the population, he said.

"If you look realistically at what we have currently available in all of our local municipal public health jurisdictions ... funding for mosquito abatement, it varies enormously from municipality to municipality," Schaffner said. "It’s focused on nuisance mosquitoes and not disease-causing mosquitoes and Aedes [aegypti] is much more tenacious," than other mosquito species.

More information is needed about the feasibility of infecting the mosquitoes with the bacteria, since the cost and technology needed may make it impractical outside of a lab setting, Schaffner said.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- A new study on the overuse of antibiotics revealed that 47 million prescriptions each year are medically unnecessary.

The research was conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Pew Charitable Trust.

Health officials have been warning for decades about the overuse of antibiotics and here are concrete numbers, as Dr. Richard Besser, ABC News’ chief health and medical editor, stopped by “Good Morning America” Wednesday to break it all down.

The study, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, analyzed antibiotic prescribing in 2010 and 2011 and found there was an antibiotic prescribed in 154 million doctor visits.

“But 30 percent of those prescriptions were for conditions where antibiotics don’t work or only work sometimes and the main ones were sinus infections, ear infections, throat infections and bronchitis,” Besser told “GMA” co-anchor Robin Roberts.

“The big concern is we’re seeing this big rise in antibiotic-resistant infections, so when you take an antibiotic when it’s not giving you any benefit, you risk that the next time you take that antibiotic, it’s not going to work for you,” he added. “Plus, you’re at risk for the side effects of antibiotics: rashes, diarrhea and, for women, yeast infections.”

Instead of asking for an antibiotic, Besser advised, ask yourself, “What can I do to feel better faster?”

“[There’s] studies that show that -- ‘Did you ask for an antibiotic?’ -- doctors [are] more likely to give it to you, even if it’s not indicated. And believe me, doctors will prescribe one if it’s indicated,” Besser said. “But, they feel they want you to be happy and so they’re going to prescribe that antibiotic sometimes where it’s not indicated.”

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) --  It is now “very likely” the mosquito-borne Zika virus will spread from mosquitos to humans in America, U.S. health officials say.

With summer right around the corner, experts are weighing in on the best things families can do to combat the disease at home in the United States.

Consumer Reports found three products to be most effective in combating the mosquito known for carrying Zika: Sawyer Fisherman’s Formula Picaridin, Natrapel 8 Hour and Off! Deepwoods VIII.

Michael Raupp, a professor of entomology at the University of Maryland who is known as “the bug guy,” said clothing and getting rid of mosquitos’ breeding sites are also good tools.

"Mosquito-repellent clothing is a very good way to prevent mosquito bites,” Raupp told ABC News. “It's also been proven to actually reduce the incident of mosquito-borne diseases."

Raupp added, "Other things that homeowners should consider to do around the home this time of year is get rid of those breeding sites.”

“That means eliminate all sources of standing water,” he said. “If you’ve got a five-gallon pale or an old paint can behind the tool shed, dump those things out and get rid of them. If it holds water for a week or two weeks, you can breed mosquitoes."

ABC News’ Chief Health and Medical Editor Dr. Richard Besser said Wednesday on Good Morning America that the main concerns around Zika focus on people of child-bearing age.

"Zika is a mild infection," Besser explained. "The only reason we’re concerned about Zika is because of its connection with birth defects.

"The whole goal is to try and protect pregnant women so that they don’t get it [and] focus on guys who are part of a couple trying to have a baby because they shouldn’t get infected either," he said, adding that for other people, getting the Zika infection is "mild."

Besser also said not everyone needs to rush to buy mosquito-repellent clothing.

"It’s very effective but this kind of clothing is pretty expensive," he said. "I sometimes use it if I’m going on assignment and I’m going to be in the jungle or you might think about it if your health department says there is a lot of Zika going around town."

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iStock/ThinkstockBy DR. JENNIFER ASHTON, ABC News Senior Medical Contributor

There are numerous physical and psychological benefits to being athletic for both men and women, and boys and girls.

High school girls who play sports are less likely to be involved in an unintended pregnancy, more likely to get better grades in school and more likely to graduate than girls who don't play sports.

Girls and women who play sports have higher levels of confidence and self-esteem and lower levels of depression.  They also have a more positive body image and experience higher states of well-being than girls and women who don't play sports.

So it should sound like a no-brainer: Get fit, get strong and get sweaty. It's good for you.

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Joe Wicks(NEW YORK) — Joe Wicks is a nutrition coach who achieved online fame when he began posting 15-second videos of meals that could be made in 15 minutes or less.

Wicks, who now has 1 million followers on Instagram, is the author of the international best-selling book Lean in 15: 15-Minute Meals and Workouts to Keep You Lean and Healthy.

Known as “the body coach,” Wicks developed the popular 90 Day SSS plan to help people tailor their diet and exercise to shift, shape and sustain their bodies (hence the three s's).

He appeared on ABC's Good Morning America on Wednesday to discuss nutrition and to share some easy, tasty recipes.

The Recipes

Nut and Mango Smoothie (serves 1)


This fruity smoothie is ideal for a last-minute breakfast on the go. With healthy fats and a scoop of protein powder, this is way better for you than any bowl of boxed cereal. Try not to get into the habit of having smoothies every day, though. As I always say, real food wins over dust every time.

INGREDIENTS

  • 4 oz sliced mango
  • 2 tbsp almond or cashew butter handful of ice cubes handful of raspberries
  • 2 tbsp full-fat Greek yogurt
  • 1 scoop (30g) vanilla or strawberry protein powder
  • ½ cup almond milk

METHOD

Place all the ingredients in a blender and blend until smooth.

TOP TIP: Warning! Don’t go nuts with your nuts. While they are a great source of protein, fiber and essential fats, nuts also contain lots of calories. It’s very easy to crack open a ½-pound bag and finish the lot without feeling full. But remember every gram of fat contains 9 kcal, so overeating nuts will not help with your fat loss. I recommend a snack portion of about one ounce. Also, try to get a variety of different nuts as they contain different vitamins. Almonds, walnuts and cashews are my personal favorites.

Eggs Baked in Avocado (serves 1)

This is becoming a bit of a signature dish for me. I’ve posted it a few times, and I love seeing people make it at home and share it on Instagram. It contains more healthy fats than you can shake a stick at . . . oh, and it’s got bacon too, so you know it’s going to taste as good as it looks.

INGREDIENTS

  • 4 slices Canadian bacon
  • 1 ripe avocado
  • 2 eggs
  • salt and pepper
  • 1 red chile, finely sliced— remove the seeds if you don’t like it hot

METHOD

Preheat the broiler to high, then lay the bacon on the broiler pan or a baking sheet and slide underneath. Broil for 3 minutes on each side.

Meanwhile, cut your avocado in half, remove the pit and scoop out a generous tablespoon of flesh from each half to create a hole big enough for the egg. No need to waste the leftover avocado—you can save it to make some guacamole or just eat it on the spot!

Crack an egg into each avocado half, season with a little salt and pepper and place on a microwaveable plate. Cook the eggs in 30-second bursts for 2 minutes—this should ensure firm whites, but runny yolks.

Serve up the baked eggs and avocado with the bacon and a scattering of chile.

Top Tip: To stop the avocados rocking on the plate, slice off a little bit underneath to make a flat base.

Turkey Meatballs With Feta (serves 1)

These meatballs were a hit on Instagram, ranking as one of my most popular videos. The cheesy sauce also tastes great with beef meatballs. Feel free to throw in any extra veg you have left in the fridge too. This can be made ahead and frozen.

INGREDIENTS

  • ½ tbsp coconut oil
  • ½ red onion, diced
  • 1 red or yellow bell pepper, thinly sliced
  • ½ zucchini, diced
  • 10 oz ready-made turkey meatballs (available at most supermarkets)
  • 1 can (14 oz) chopped tomatoes
  • ¾ oz feta, crumbled
  • ½ bunch of parsley, leaves only, roughly chopped— optional

METHOD

Heat the coconut oil in a large frying pan over medium to high heat. Add the onion, bell pepper and zucchini, and stir-fry for 2 minutes until the vegetables begin to soften and wilt.

Increase the heat to maximum and roll the meatballs into the pan. Fry for 2–3 minutes, moving them frequently so they brown all over.

Winner’s Protein Pancakes (serves 1)

Oooh, I can eat pancakes and get lean? Yes please—sold! These may look naughty, but they’re actually the perfect post-workout treat, so stack ’em up and enjoy. You’ve earned them!

INGREDIENTS

  • 1 banana, roughly chopped
  • 1 scoop (30g) vanilla protein powder
  • 1 egg
  • One-third cup rolled oats
  • 1 tbsp coconut oil
  • full-fat Greek yogurt, blueberries and raspberries, to serve

METHOD

Whizz up the banana, protein powder, egg and oats in a blender to make your batter.

Heat up half the coconut oil in a nonstick frying pan over medium heat. Pour little puddles of batter into the pan— I usually get 3 pancakes, with about half the batter in the pan at once. Cook for about 1 minute on each side. Remove and repeat the process with the rest of the batter.

Serve with a dollop of yogurt and a few berries.

Pour in the chopped tomatoes and bring to a boil, then reduce the heat and simmer for 5 minutes, or until the meatballs are fully cooked through. To check, cut the largest one in half and make sure all the meat has turned from pink to white.

Remove the pan from the heat, crumble over the feta and sprinkle with parsley, if using.

Build-Up Bagel (serves 1)

Long live the build-up bagel. For some reason, people on my plan go absolutely bonkers for this post-workout bagel. I think they feel naughty eating it—but, like I say, you’ve just trained and earned those carbs, so no need to feel guilty. Go for good-quality cooked meat, not the nasty cheap re-formed stuff. If you don’t want to bother with poaching the egg, you could always just boil and slice it instead.

INGREDIENTS

  • 1 egg
  • 1 plain bagel
  • 2 tsp chipotle paste or barbecue sauce
  • 1 tbsp full-fat Greek yogurt
  • large handful of arugula
  • 1 tomato, sliced
  • 5 oz deli-style cooked turkey or chicken breast
  • 2½ oz deli-style sliced roast beef

METHOD

Bring a saucepan of water to a boil. Carefully crack your egg into the hot water, reducing the heat until the water is just “burping.” Cook the egg for about 4 minutes for a runny yolk, then carefully lift it out with a slotted spoon and drain on paper towels.

Slice the bagel in half and toast it for a couple of minutes.

Spread the toasted bagel evenly with the chipotle paste or barbecue sauce and the yogurt, and then begin building your bagel: start with the arugula and tomato, followed by the turkey or chicken and the beef, then the poached egg. Finally, stick the top on the bagel and get munching!

Recipes from LEAN IN 15 by Joe Wicks. Copyright © 2016 by Joe Wicks. Reprinted by permission of William Morrow, an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers.


Copyright © 2016, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.

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